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This paper presents an automatic retina verification framework based on the biometric graph matching (BGM) algorithm. The retinal vasculature is extracted using a family of matched filters in the frequency domain and morphological operators. Then, retinal templates are defined as formal spatial graphs derived from the retinal vasculature. The BGM algorithm,(More)
OBJECT The authors sought to assess the respective roles of microsurgery and gamma knife surgery (GKS) in the treatment of patients with meningiomas. METHODS The authors culled from a 4-year prospective database data on 74 cases of meningiomas. Thirty-eight were treated with GKS and 35 with microsurgery. Simpson Grade 1 or 2 resection was achieved in 86.1(More)
Drugs that act more promiscuously provide fewer routes for the emergence of resistant mutants. This benefit, however, often comes at the cost of serious off-target and dose-limiting toxicities. The classic example is the antifungal amphotericin B (AmB), which has evaded resistance for more than half a century. We report markedly less toxic amphotericins(More)
Amphotericin B (AmB) is the archetype for small molecules that form ion channels in living systems and has recently been shown to replace a missing protein ion transporter and thereby restore physiology in yeast. Molecular modeling studies predict that AmB self-assembles in lipid membranes with the polyol region lining a channel interior that funnels to its(More)