Stephen A. C. Hawkins

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Sixty-three Romney sheep aged 6 months, consisting of three groups (PrP(ARQ/ARQ), PrP(ARQ/ARR), and PrP(ARR/ARR)genotypes) of 21 animals, were infected orally with brain tissue from BSE-infected cattle. Sub-groups of the 21 PrP(ARQ/ARQ) animals were killed, together with uninfected controls 4, 10, 16, 22 or 24-28 (after the development of full clinical(More)
Further preliminary observations are reported of an experiment to examine the spread of infectivity and the occurrence of pathological changes in cattle exposed orally to infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Calves were dosed at four months of age and clinically monitored groups were killed sequentially from two to 40 months after inoculation.(More)
The immunohistochemical localisation of the disease-specific protein, PrP(Sc), was examined in the distal ileum of cattle up to 40 months after they had been exposed orally to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), in the intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes of an additional group of cattle, killed six months after a similar exposure, and in(More)
Sixty Romney sheep of three prion protein genotypes were dosed orally at six months of age with an inoculum prepared from the brains of cattle clinically affected with BSE, and 15 sheep were left undosed as controls. They were randomly assigned within genotype to groups and were sequentially euthanased and examined postmortem at intervals of six or 12(More)
This study examines tissues from sequential-kill, time-course pathogenesis studies to refine estimates of the age at which disease-specific PrP (PrP(Sc)) can first be detected in the central nervous system (CNS) and related peripheral nervous system ganglia of cattle incubating bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Such estimates are important for risk(More)
After detection of a high prevalence of scrapie in a large dairy goat herd, 72 infected animals were examined by immunohistochemistry with prion protein (PrP) antibody Bar224 to study the pathogenesis of the infection. Tissues examined included the brain and thoracic spinal cord (TSC), a wide selection of lymphoreticular system (LRS) tissues, the distal(More)
In an experimental study of the transmissibility of BSE to the pig, seven of 10 pigs, infected at 1-2 weeks of age by multiple-route parenteral inoculation with a homogenate of bovine brain from natural BSE cases developed lesions typical of spongiform encephalopathy. The lesions consisted principally of severe neuropil vacuolation affecting most areas of(More)
The clinical findings in 59 cows with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) were compared with those in 19 cattle that were submitted as BSE suspects but not confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Both groups were also compared with a control group of 20 healthy cows. Abnormalities in behaviour, temperament, mental status and activity, neurogenic disorders of(More)