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Hypoxia is involved in many neuronal and non-neuronal diseases, and defining the mechanisms for tissue adaptation to hypoxia is critical for the understanding and treatment of these diseases. One mechanism for tissue adaptation to hypoxia is increased glutamine and/or glutamate (Gln/Glu) utilization. To address this mechanism, we determined incorporation of(More)
Prostaglandins (PG) and isoprostanes (iso-PG) may be derived through cyclooxygenase or free radical pathways and are important signaling molecules that are also robust biomarkers of oxidative stress. Their quantification is important for understanding many biological processes where PG, iso-PG, or oxidative stress are involved. One of the common methods for(More)
The involvement of brain 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in a number of critical physiological and pathophysiological regulatory mechanisms highlights the importance for an accurate brain 2-AG determination. In the present study, we validated head-focused microwave irradiation (MW) as a method to prevent postmortem brain 2-AG alterations before analysis. We(More)
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS, 50Hz) is a useful method to restore an effective cough in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, high stimulus amplitudes and potential activation of pain fibers, significantly limits this application. It is our hypothesis that high frequency SCS (HF-SCS), with low stimulus amplitudes may provide the same level of(More)
The purpose of this study was to characterize behavioral and physiological effects of a selective thromboxane (TP) receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548, in the C57Bl/6 mouse model. At 6 months of age, male mice were given either sham or drug i.p. injections for 3 days at a dose of 2 mg/kg each day. On the day after the final injection, mice were subjected to(More)
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