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We have developed an in vitro system involving digitonin-permeabilized vertebrate cells to study biochemical events in the transport of macromolecules across the nuclear envelope. While treatment of cultured cells with digitonin permeabilizes the plasma membranes to macromolecules, the nuclear envelopes remain structurally intact and nuclei retain the(More)
Nuclear location sequence-mediated binding of karyophilic proteins to the nuclear pore complexes is one of the earliest steps in nuclear protein import. We previously identified two cytosolic proteins that reconstitute this step in a permeabilized cell assay: the 54/56-kD NLS receptor and p97. A monoclonal antibody to p97 localizes the protein to the(More)
Exposure of intact cells to UV light brings about cross-linking of polyadenylated mRNA to a set of cytoplasmic proteins which are in direct contact with the mRNA in vivo. Substantial amounts of an additional protein of molecular weight 38,000 (38K) become cross-linked to the mRNA when cells are treated with inhibitors of mRNA synthesis (actinomycin D,(More)
We have purified two major polypeptides of 54 and 56 kd from bovine erythrocytes that specifically bind the nuclear location sequence (NLS) of the SV40 large T antigen. When added to a permeabilized cell system for nuclear import, the purified proteins increase by 2- to 3-fold the nuclear accumulation of a fluorescent protein containing the large T antigen(More)
The importin alpha/beta heterodimer targets hundreds of proteins to the nuclear-pore complex (NPC) and facilitates their translocation across the nuclear envelope. Importin alpha binds to classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS)-containing proteins and links them to importin beta, the karyopherin that ferries the ternary complex through the NPC. A(More)
Mitotic spindle morphogenesis is a series of highly coordinated movements that lead to chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. We report that the intermediate filament protein lamin B, a component of the interphase nuclear lamina, functions in spindle assembly. Lamin B assembled into a matrix-like network in mitosis through a process that depended on the(More)
Nuclear protein import can be separated into two distinct steps: binding to the nuclear pore complex followed by translocation to the nuclear interior. A previously identified nuclear location sequence (NLS) receptor and a 97-kD protein purified from bovine erythrocytes reconstitute the binding step in a permeabilized cell assay. Binding to the envelope is(More)
Three factors have been identified that reconstitute nuclear protein import in a permeabilized cell assay: the NLS receptor, p97, and Ran/TC4. Ran/TC4, in turn, interacts with a number of proteins that are involved in the regulation of GTP hydrolysis or are components of the nuclear pore. Two Ran-binding proteins, RanBP1 and RanBP2, form discrete complexes(More)
The guanosine triphosphatase Ran stimulates assembly of microtubule asters and spindles in mitotic Xenopus egg extracts. A carboxyl-terminal region of the nuclear-mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA), a nuclear protein required for organizing mitotic spindle poles, mimics Ran's ability to induce asters. This NuMA fragment also specifically interacted with the(More)