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Progression of prostate cancer following castration is associated with increased androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling despite AR blockade. Recent studies suggest that these activities are due to the generation of constitutively active AR splice variants, but the mechanisms by which these splice variants could mediate such effects are not fully(More)
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the primary treatment for advanced prostate cancer. The efficacy of ADT has not been rigorously evaluated by demonstrating suppression of prostatic androgen activity at the target tissue and molecular level. We determined the efficacy and consistency of medical castration in suppressing prostatic androgen levels(More)
The higher prevalence of autoimmune disease among women compared with men suggests that steroids impact immune regulation. To investigate how sex steroids modulate cellular immune function, we conducted a randomized trial in 12 healthy men aged 35-55 yr treated for 28 days with placebo, a GnRH antagonist, acyline to induce medical castration, or acyline(More)
BACKGROUND A 29-year-old man presented to a clinic with infertility and hypogonadism in the setting of morbid obesity. On presentation, he had notable gynecomastia and a low testicular volume. The patient's weight was 154 kg and his height was 168 cm (BMI 54.5 kg/m(2)). Before referral to the clinic, the patient had been treated with testosterone therapy(More)
BACKGROUND Uncertainty exists regarding the optimal workup of patients with suspected osteomyelitis of the foot, many of whom have diabetes mellitus. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the diagnostic test performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for osteomyelitis of the foot and compared this performance with that of technetium Tc 99m bone(More)
Sex steroids are essential for spermatogenesis; however, normal intratesticular concentrations of these hormones in man have not been extensively studied. To improve our understanding of intratesticular hormone concentrations, we performed bilateral testicular aspirations in a group of normal men, determined sex steroid concentrations within each testis,(More)
As there are limitations to current methods of male contraception, research has been undertaken to develop hormonal contraceptives for men, analogous to the methods for women based on estrogen and progestogens. When testosterone is administered to a man, it functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and(More)
OBJECTIVE Total testosterone concentrations are influenced by sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations, which are decreased by obesity and increased with ageing. Therefore, we sought to understand and compare the associations of ageing and obesity with SHBG. DESIGN We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of the associations of(More)
CONTEXT The concentration of intratesticular testosterone (IT-T) required for human spermatogenesis is unknown because spermatogenesis can persist despite the markedly reduced IT-T concentrations observed with LH suppression. Methods to lower IT-T further are needed to determine the relationship between IT-T and spermatogenesis. OBJECTIVE The objective of(More)
Testosterone (T) therapy in older men with low serum T levels increases lean body mass and decreases fat mass. These changes might improve physical performance and strength; however, it has not been established whether T therapy improves functional outcome in older men. Moreover, concerns exist about the impact of T therapy on the prostate in older men. The(More)