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Variations in cortical oscillations in the alpha (7-14 Hz) and beta (15-29 Hz) range have been correlated with attention, working memory, and stimulus detection. The mu rhythm recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a prominent oscillation generated by Rolandic cortex containing alpha and beta bands. Despite its prominence, the neural mechanisms(More)
Previous reports conflict as to the role of primary somatosensory neocortex (SI) in tactile detection. We addressed this question in normal human subjects using whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording. We found that the evoked signal (0-175 ms) showed a prominent equivalent current dipole that localized to the anterior bank of the postcentral(More)
Rats typically employ 4- to 12-Hz "whisking" movements of their vibrissae during tactile exploration. The intentional sampling of signals in this frequency range suggests that neural processing of tactile information may be differentially engaged in this bandwidth. We examined action potential responses in rat primary somatosensory cortex (SI) to a range of(More)
Changes in behavioral state are typically accompanied by changes in the frequency and spatial coordination of rhythmic activity in the neocortex. In this article, we analyze the effects of neuromodulation on ionic conductances in an oscillating cortical circuit model. The model consists of synaptically-coupled excitatory and inhibitory neurons and supports(More)
Synchronous recruitment of fast-spiking (FS) parvalbumin (PV) interneurons generates gamma oscillations, rhythms that emerge during performance of cognitive tasks. Administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists alters gamma rhythms, and can induce cognitive as well as psychosis-like symptoms in humans. The disruption of NMDA receptor(More)
Using a common set of mindfulness exercises, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been shown to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness) practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we(More)
Neocortical networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons can display alpha(a)-frequency rhythms when an animal is in a resting or unfocused state. Unlike some gamma- and beta-frequency rhythms, experimental observations in cats have shown that these alpha-frequency rhythms need not synchronize over long cortical distances. Here, we develop a network model(More)
Selective optogenetic drive of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons (INs) leads to enhanced local field potential (LFP) power across the traditional "gamma" frequency band (20-80 Hz; Cardin et al., 2009). In contrast, drive to regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal cells enhances power at lower frequencies, with a peak at 8 Hz. The first result is consistent with(More)
Neuronal activity-induced changes in vascular tone and oxygen consumption result in a dynamic evolution of blood flow, volume, and oxygenation. Functional neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and PET, provide indirect measures of the neural-induced vascular dynamics driving the blood parameters. Models(More)
Weakly coupled phase oscillators and strongly coupled relaxation oscillators have different mechanisms for creating stable phase lags. Many oscillations in central pattern generators combine features of each type of coupling: local networks composed of strongly coupled relaxation oscillators are weakly coupled to similar local networks. This paper analyzes(More)