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Variations in cortical oscillations in the alpha (7-14 Hz) and beta (15-29 Hz) range have been correlated with attention, working memory, and stimulus detection. The mu rhythm recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a prominent oscillation generated by Rolandic cortex containing alpha and beta bands. Despite its prominence, the neural mechanisms(More)
Cued spatial attention modulates functionally relevant alpha rhythms in visual cortices in humans. Here, we present evidence for analogous phenomena in primary somatosensory neocortex (SI). Using magnetoencephalography, we measured changes in the SI mu rhythm containing mu-alpha (7-14 Hz) and mu-beta (15-29 Hz) components. We found that cued attention(More)
Previous reports conflict as to the role of primary somatosensory neocortex (SI) in tactile detection. We addressed this question in normal human subjects using whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording. We found that the evoked signal (0-175 ms) showed a prominent equivalent current dipole that localized to the anterior bank of the postcentral(More)
Rats typically employ 4- to 12-Hz "whisking" movements of their vibrissae during tactile exploration. The intentional sampling of signals in this frequency range suggests that neural processing of tactile information may be differentially engaged in this bandwidth. We examined action potential responses in rat primary somatosensory cortex (SI) to a range of(More)
Using a common set of mindfulness exercises, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been shown to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness) practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we(More)
Neocortical networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons can display alpha(a)-frequency rhythms when an animal is in a resting or unfocused state. Unlike some gamma- and beta-frequency rhythms, experimental observations in cats have shown that these alpha-frequency rhythms need not synchronize over long cortical distances. Here, we develop a network model(More)
Changes in behavioral state are typically accompanied by changes in the frequency and spatial coordination of rhythmic activity in the neocortex. In this article, we analyze the effects of neuromodulation on ionic conductances in an oscillating cortical circuit model. The model consists of synaptically-coupled excitatory and inhibitory neurons and supports(More)
Accurate interpretation of functional MRI (fMRI) signals requires knowledge of the relationship between the hemodynamic response and the neuronal activity that underlies it. Here we address the question of coupling between pre- and postsynaptic neuronal activity and the hemodynamic response in rodent somatosensory (Barrel) cortex in response to(More)
Selective optogenetic drive of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons (INs) leads to enhanced local field potential (LFP) power across the traditional "gamma" frequency band (20-80 Hz; Cardin et al., 2009). In contrast, drive to regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal cells enhances power at lower frequencies, with a peak at 8 Hz. The first result is consistent with(More)
Neuronal activity-induced changes in vascular tone and oxygen consumption result in a dynamic evolution of blood flow, volume, and oxygenation. Functional neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and PET, provide indirect measures of the neural-induced vascular dynamics driving the blood parameters. Models(More)