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The implementation of the Water Framework Directive has required intense research in applied aquatic ecology in Europe, and thus created challenges for data management in international research projects. In the project Waterbodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery (WISER), biological and environmental data from rivers,(More)
Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli heat labile toxins (CT and LT) elicit a secretory response from intestinal epithelia by binding apical receptors (ganglioside GM1) and subsequently activating basolateral effectors (adenylate cyclase). We have recently proposed that signal transduction in polarized cells may require transcytosis of toxin-containing(More)
The effect of brefeldin-A (BFA), a reversible inhibitor of vesicular transport, on cholera toxin (CT)-induced Cl- secretion (Isc) was examined in the polarized human intestinal cell line, T84. Pretreatment of T84 monolayers with 5 microM BFA reversibly inhibited Isc in response to apical or basolateral addition of 120 nM CT (2.4 +/- 0.5 vs. 68 +/- 3(More)
Increased temperature and other environmental effects of global climate change (GCC) have documented impacts on many species (e.g., polar bears, amphibians, coral reefs) as well as on ecosystem processes and species interactions (e.g., the timing of predator-prey interactions). A challenge for ecotoxicologists is to predict how joint effects of climatic(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) elicits a massive secretory response from intestinal epithelia by binding apical receptors (ganglioside GM1) and ultimately activating basolateral effectors (adenylate cyclase). The mechanism of signal transduction from apical to basolateral membrane, however, remains undefined. We have previously shown that CT action on the polarized(More)
In the polarized human intestinal epithelial cell line T84, signal transduction by cholera toxin (CT) follows a complex series of events in which CT enters the apical endosome and moves through multiple vesicular compartments before it activates adenylate cyclase. As with processing of many other surface ligands, it has been suggested that CT must enter(More)
During active intestinal inflammation polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) transmigrate into the lumen and release 5'-AMP (J. Clin. Invest. 1993. 91:2320-2325). 5'-AMP is converted to adenosine by the apical epithelial surface with subsequent activation of electrogenic Cl- secretion (the basis of secretory diarrhea) via apical A2b adenosine receptors (J.(More)
This is the first of seven papers resulting from a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) international workshop titled "The Influence of Global Climate Change on the Scientific Foundations and Applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry." The workshop involved 36 scientists from 11 countries and was designed to answer the(More)
Conventional theories of population and community dynamics are based on a single currency such as number of individuals, biomass, carbon or energy. However, organisms are constructed of multiple elements and often require them (in particular carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen) in different ratios than provided by their resources; this mismatch may constrain(More)
Cholera and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxins (CT and LT) require proteolysis of a peptide loop connecting two major domains of their enzymatic A subunits for maximal activity (termed "nicking"). To test whether host intestinal epithelial cells may supply the necessary protease, recombinant rCT and rLT and a protease-resistant mutant CTR192H were(More)