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The processes that take place during development and differentiation are directed through coordinated regulation of expression of a large number of genes. One such gene regulatory network provides cell cycle control in eukaryotic organisms. In this work, we have studied the structural features of the 5' regulatory regions of cell cycle-related genes. We(More)
We have taken a new approach to the identification of E2F-regulated promoters. After modification of a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we cloned nine chromatin fragments which represent both strong and weak in vivo E2F binding sites. Further characterization of three of the cloned fragments revealed that they are bound in vivo not only by E2Fs but also(More)
Polycomb group (PcG) complexes 2 and 3 are involved in transcriptional silencing. These complexes contain a histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT) activity that targets different lysine residues on histones H1 or H3 in vitro. However, it is not known if these histones are methylation targets in vivo because the human PRC2/3 complexes have not been studied(More)
E2F-mediated transcription is thought to involve binding of an E2F-pocket protein complex to promoters in the G(0) phase of the cell cycle and release of the pocket protein in late G(1), followed by release of E2F in S phase. We have tested this model by monitoring protein-DNA interactions in living cells using a formaldehyde cross-linking and(More)
The E2F family of transcriptional regulators consists of six different members. Analysis of E2F-regulated promoters by using cultured cells suggests that E2Fs may have redundant functions. However, animal studies have shown that loss of individual E2Fs can have distinct biological consequences. Such seemingly conflicting results could be due to a difference(More)
The E2F family of transcription factors includes five E2F and three DP forms. E2F is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, but little is known about E2F function during vertebrate development. We have explored the regulation of E2F expression during mouse organogenesis by in situ hybridization. We find selective up-regulation of E2F-2, E2F-4,(More)
The E2F family of heterodimeric transcription factors plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression at the G1/S phase transition of the mammalian cell cycle. Previously, we have demonstrated that cell cycle regulation of murine dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) expression requires E2F-mediated activation of the dhfr promoter in S phase. To(More)
Uncertainty as to which member of a family of DNA-binding transcription factors regulates a specific promoter in intact cells is a problem common to many investigators. Determining target gene specificity requires both an analysis of protein binding to the endogenous promoter as well as a characterization of the functional consequences of transcription(More)
We have previously identified SU(Z)12 as an E2F target gene. Because many E2F target genes encode proteins that are critical for the control of cell proliferation, we have further characterized the regulation and expression of SU(Z)12. To understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for expression of SU(Z)12 mRNA, we have analyzed the promoter region. We(More)
The E2F family of transcription factors consists of two subgroups termed E2F and DP. E2F is required for cell proliferation, and is necessary for fruit fly development. E2F activity is a target for regulation by the retinoblastoma gene family, which includes pRB, p107 and p130. Mutant RB-/-, RB-/-:p107-/- and p107-/-:p130-/- mice develop abnormally,(More)