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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Knowledge of the complete genomic DNA sequence of an organism allows a systematic approach to defining its genetic components. The genomic sequence provides access to the complete structures of all genes, including those without known function, their control elements, and, by inference, the proteins they encode, as well as all other biologically important(More)
Rare genetic variants contribute to complex disease risk; however, the abundance of rare variants in human populations remains unknown. We explored this spectrum of variation by sequencing 202 genes encoding drug targets in 14,002 individuals. We find rare variants are abundant (1 every 17 bases) and geographically localized, so that even with large sample(More)
Genotype imputation has the potential to assess human genetic variation at a lower cost than assaying the variants using laboratory techniques. The performance of imputation for rare variants has not been comprehensively studied. We utilized 8865 human samples with high depth resequencing data for the exons and flanking regions of 202 genes and Genome-Wide(More)
PKD1 is the major locus of the common genetic disorder autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Analysis of the predicted protein sequence of the human PKD1 gene, polycystin, shows a large molecule with a unique arrangement of extracellular domains and multiple putative transmembrane regions. The precise function of polycystin remains unclear(More)
BACKGROUND The Epilepsy Genetics (EPIGEN) Consortium was established to undertake genetic mapping analyses with augmented statistical power to detect variants that influence the development and treatment of common forms of epilepsy. METHODS We examined common variations across 279 prime candidate genes in 2717 case and 1118 control samples collected at(More)
Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first(More)
The identification of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) in 1989 represents a landmark accomplishment in human genetics. Since that time, there have been numerous advances in elucidating the function of the encoded protein and the physiological basis of cystic fibrosis. However, numerous areas of cystic fibrosis biology(More)
Increased adiponectin levels have been shown to be associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. To understand the relations between genetic variation at the adiponectin-encoding gene, ADIPOQ, and adiponectin levels, and subsequently its role in disease, we conducted a deep resequencing experiment of ADIPOQ in 14,002 subjects, including 12,514 Europeans,(More)
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2) produces the proinflammatory mediators lysophos-phatidylcholine and oxidized free fatty acids through hydrolysis of oxidized phospholipids carried on low-density lipoproteins in atherosclerotic plaques. Although increased Lp-PLA 2 activity has been associated with higher risks of occlusive vascular(More)