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The chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm was developed in order to simulate in animals the symptom of anhedonia, a major feature of depression. Typically, changes in hedonic status are interpreted from a decrease in either intake or preference for a mild sucrose solution. Although the incidence of clinical depression is significantly higher in women than in(More)
The behavioral, biochemical, and physiologic consequences of 6 wk of environmental enrichment were evaluated in male Long Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats and compared with those of rats in standard single-housing conditions. Standard housing provided little or no social or physical stimulation whereas environmental enrichment comprised group housing for 8 h(More)
The chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure was developed in rodents to target anhedonia, the core symptom of depressive melancholia. Stress exposure has been shown to induce a variety of physiological, biochemical and behavioral alterations associated with depression, although its anhedonic consequences as indexed by either sucrose intake and preference or(More)
Anhedonia, a core symptom of clinical depression, refers to the loss of interest in normally rewarding stimuli; the chronic mild stress paradigm, an animal model of depression, was designed with this as an underlying feature. The procedure consists of the administration of a variety of ecologically relevant stressors over long durations. Its effects have(More)
In both humans and animals, stress experienced during gestation is associated with physiological changes and disruptions in emotional function and cognitive ability in offspring; however, much less is known about the effects of such stress in mothers. In animal models, physical restraint is commonly employed to induce stress during gestation and results in(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound used in the production of many polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the world today and is found in most canned goods, plastics, and even household dust. Exposure to BPA is almost universal: most people have measurable amounts of BPA in both urine and serum. BPA(More)
Decreased intake and weight loss are among the side effects frequently reported with chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use in both humans and animals. In an earlier study, we documented that paroxetine administered for several weeks induced a weight loss of greater than 10% in some male Sprague-Dawley rats (Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 63(More)
Environmental enrichment is known to influence an animal's well-being, provide opportunities for activity, and encourage behaviours appropriate to the species. Female Long-Evans rats were co-housed during their gestational and postpartum times in a colony housing environment comprising numerous cages, with interconnecting tubes, surrounding a multileveled(More)
Physical restraint applied during gestation is a commonly employed animal model of human pregnancy stress. The consequences of such a paradigm have been extensively investigated in adult male rats using a variety of physiological and behavioral measures. The behavioral repertoire of female offspring, however, has been largely ignored. The current study(More)
The chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm was developed to model anhedonia in animals. The repeated administration of a series of unpredictable, mild stressors attempts to mimic the daily stress associated with the onset of clinical depression in humans. Male animals are predominantly used in these investigations despite significant, well-documented sex(More)