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We describe the development of an expression-secretion system in Bacillus subtilis to improve the quality and quantity of the secreted foreign proteins. This system consists of a strain (WB600) deficient in six extracellular proteases and a set of sacB-based expression vectors. With the inactivation of all six chromosomal genes encoding neutral protease A,(More)
Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) are central elements of cellular excitation. Notwithstanding advances from recent bacterial NaV (BacNaV) structures, key questions about gating and ion selectivity remain. Here, we present a closed conformation of NaVAe1p, a pore-only BacNaV derived from NaVAe1, a BacNaV from the arsenite oxidizer Alkalilimnicola(More)
THE Bcl-2 family of proteins regulate programmed cell death by an unknown mechanism. Here we describe the crystal and solution structures of a Bcl-2 family member, Bcl-xL (ref. 2). The structures consist of two central, primarily hydrophobic alpha-helices, which are surrounded by amphipathic helices. A 60-residue loop connecting helices alpha1 and alpha2(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate short term effects of concentrations of pollutants in ambient air on hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Hong Kong. METHODS Retrospective ecological study. A Poisson regression was performed of concentrations of daily air pollutant on daily counts of emergency hospital admissions in 12 major(More)
Bacillus subtilis subtilisin is predicted to be synthesized as a preproenzyme according to the sequence analysis of its gene. We have synthesized the [35S] methionine-labeled preprosubtilisin in vitro and processed the precursor to prosubtilisin by the addition of membrane vesicles derived from vegetative cells of B. subtilis and Triton X-100.(More)
Formation of inclusion bodies is a major limiting factor for secretory production of an antidigoxin single-chain antibody (SCA) fragment from Bacillus subtilis. To address this problem, three new strains with enhanced production of molecular chaperones were constructed. WB600BHM constitutively produces the major intracellular molecular chaperones in an(More)
An inverted repeat sequence known as CIRCE (controlling inverted repeat of chaperone expression) in the Bacillus subtilis groE operon has been suggested to function as an operator. To identify the regulatory gene directly or indirectly involved in CIRCE-mediated heat-inducible groE expression, B. subtilis WBG2, carrying an integrated groE-bgaB transcription(More)
The strong biotin-streptavidin interaction limits the application of streptavidin as a reversible affinity matrix for purification of biotinylated biomolecules. To address this concern, a series of single, double, and triple streptavidin muteins with different affinities to biotin were designed. The strategy involves mutating one to three strategically(More)
GutR is a 95-kDa glucitol-dependent transcription activator that mediates the expression of the Bacillus subtilis glucitol operon. Glucitol allows GutR to bind tightly to its binding site located upstream of the gut promoter. In this study, a second functional role of glucitol is identified. Glucitol induces GutR to change its conformation and triggers GutR(More)
Empathizing-Systemizing theory posits a continuum of cognitive traits extending from autism into normal cognitive variation. Covariance data on empathizing and systemizing traits have alternately suggested inversely dependent, independent, and sex-dependent (one sex dependent, the other independent) structures. A total of 144 normal undergraduates (65 men,(More)