The Cas9 protein from the Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR-Cas acquired immune system has been adapted for both RNA-guided genome editing and gene regulation in a variety of organisms, but it can mediate only a single activity at a time within any given cell. Here we characterize a set of fully orthogonal Cas9 proteins and demonstrate their ability to mediate… (More)
Elucidating functions of commensal microbial genes in the mammalian gut is challenging because many commensals are recalcitrant to laboratory cultivation and genetic manipulation. We present Temporal FUnctional Metagenomics sequencing (TFUMseq), a platform to functionally mine bacterial genomes for genes that contribute to fitness of commensal bacteria in… (More)
Bacteria rely on two known DNA-level defenses against their bacteriophage predators: restriction-modification and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems. Certain phages have evolved countermeasures that are known to block endonucleases. For example, phage T4 not only adds hydroxymethyl groups to… (More)
T4-like bacteriophages have been explored for phage therapy and are model organisms for phage genomics and evolution. Here, we describe the sequencing of 11 T4-like phages. We found a high nucleotide similarity among the T4, RB55, and RB59; RB32 and RB33; and RB3, RB5, RB6, RB7, RB9, and RB10 phages.