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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily and play a critical role in skeletal development, bone formation and stem cell differentiation. Disruptions in BMP signaling result in a variety of skeletal and extraskeletal anomalies. BMP9 is a poorly characterized member of the BMP family and is among the most osteogenic BMPs,(More)
Efficient osteogenic differentiation and bone formation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) should have clinical applications in treating nonunion fracture healing. MSCs are adherent bone marrow stromal cells that can self-renew and differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages. We have identified bone morphogenetic protein 9(More)
BACKGROUND As one of the least studied bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), BMP9 is one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is known to play an important role in development, differentiation and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigate the effect of RA signaling on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily and have diverse functions during development and organogenesis. BMPs play a major role in skeletal development and bone formation, and disruptions in BMP signaling cause a variety of skeletal and extraskeletal anomalies. Several knockout models have provided insight into the mechanisms(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow stromal cells that can differentiate into multiple lineages. We previously demonstrated that BMP9 is one of the most potent BMPs to induce osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. BMP9 is one of the least studied BMPs. Whereas ALK1, ALK5, and/or endoglin have recently been reported as potential BMP9 type I receptors(More)
Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is a well-established and safe technique for the management of biliary obstructions and leaks. While approach is variable based on operator preference, patient anatomy, and indications; PTBD is commonly performed via a right-sided intercostal route. With a right-sided approach, pleural complications may be(More)
Growth hormone (GH) is usually released by somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary in response to the GH-releasing hormone and plays an important role in skeleton development and postnatal growth. However, it is unclear if extrapituitary GH exerts any effect on murine multilineage cells (MMCs). MMCs are multipotent progenitors that give rise to several(More)
PURPOSE Sustained-release intravitreal drug implants for posterior segment diseases are associated with significant complications. As an alternative, subconjunctival infusions of drug to the episclera of the back of the eye have been performed, but results in clinical trials for macular diseases showed mixed RESULTS To improve understanding of(More)
As one of the most common malignancies, colon cancer is initiated by abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Although the treatment options have increased for some patients, overall progress has been modest. Thus, there is a great need to develop new treatments. We have found that bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid tetrandrine (TET) exhibits(More)
PURPOSE To determine the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of an episcleral or deep scleral lamellar sustained release cyclosporine (CsA) device in a naturally occurring animal model of uveitis. METHODS A two-compartment perfusion chamber was used to assess in vitro human and equine scleral permeability of fluorescein, dexamethasone-fluorescein, or(More)