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Previous studies have provided evidence of multi-level mental representations of language-conveyed spatial (scenic) information. However, the available evidence is largely inconclusive with regard to the structure of these mental representations. A laboratory experiment assesses computer-assisted problem-solving performance abilities when language-conveyed(More)
Two research projects are described that explore the use of spoken natural language interfaces to virtual reality (VR) systems. Both projects combine off-the-shelf speech recognition and synthesis technology with in-house command interpreters that interface to the VR applications. Details about the interpreters and other technical aspects of the projects(More)
database objects serve as the extensions of referring expressions. To avoid having to enter hundreds of foreign proper names into the PROTEUS lexicon, we modied the PROTEUS lexical tagger to assume that any input word might be a proper name (applying that assumption only to non-English words failed the rst time we encountered the river Main and the Czech(More)
1 Description of video tape Format: VHS. Duration: 9 min. 15 sec. Immersive, interactive 3D computer display systems (often called virtual reality systems, or virtual environments) are rapidly emerging as practical options for training, command and control (C2), hazardous operations, visualization and other applications. However, the need for improved(More)
The addition of speech recognition capabilities would seem to be a logical and desirable extension to a keyboard-entry natural language understanding interface. However, because of the limitations of some speech recognition technologies this addition can affect the structure and flexibility of the interface. This paper discusses the consequences and(More)
The addition of speech recognition capabilities would seem to be a logical and desirable extension to a keyboard-entry natural language understanding interface, but how does one accommodate the limitations of the current speech recognition technology in a broad and flexible natural language processing system? This paper discusses some of the lessons learned(More)