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Animals exposed to stress during development experience sustained morphological, physiological, neurological, and behavioral consequences. For example, elevated glucocorticoids (GCs) during development can increase GC secretion in adults. Studies have examined the sustained effects of elevated developmental GCs on total GC responses, but no study to date(More)
There is increasing evidence that exposure to stress during development can have sustained effects on animal phenotype and performance across life-history stages. For example, developmental stress has been shown to decrease the quality of sexually selected traits (e.g. bird song), and therefore is thought to decrease reproductive success. However, animals(More)
Within the gall-inducing thrips of Australia, genus Kladothrips, is a single origin of a soldier caste. A subsequent radiation has led to at least seven social species, and two species that are likely to have independently lost the soldier caste. Both losses of soldiers are connected to a shift in the insects’ host plant. A third inferred host shift is(More)
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