The type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT activate influenza viruses and the SARS-coronavirus (TMPRSS2) in cell culture and may play an important role in viral spread and pathogenesis in the infected host. However, it is at present largely unclear to what extent these proteases are expressed in viral target cells in human tissues. Here, we… (More)
Annual influenza epidemics and occasional pandemics pose a severe threat to human health. Host cell factors required for viral spread but not for cellular survival are attractive targets for novel approaches to antiviral intervention. The cleavage activation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) by host cell proteases is essential for viral infectivity.… (More)
We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province.
BACKGROUND Platelets are associated with HIV in the blood of infected individuals and might modulate viral dissemination, particularly if the virus is directly transmitted into the bloodstream. The C-type lectin DC-SIGN and the novel HIV attachment factor CLEC-2 are expressed by platelets and facilitate HIV transmission from platelets to T-cells. Here, we… (More)
Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been… (More)
The interferon-induced host cell factor tetherin inhibits release of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from the plasma membrane of infected cells and is counteracted by the HIV-1 protein Vpu. Influenza A virus (FLUAV) also buds from the plasma membrane and is not inhibited by tetherin. Here, we investigated if FLUAV encodes a functional equivalent of Vpu… (More)
Lung samples were collected from dead birds (chickens, ducks, pigeons, and partridges) from farms in 3 affected regions (Greater Accra, Volta and Ashanti regions) in Ghana. Samples were frozen at 80°C in virus transport medium containing 2.5% veal infusion broth (Becton tissue samples from chickens (layers >21 weeks of age) were randomly selected in each… (More)