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The serum and urinary concentrations of pancuronium were measured in 14 surgical patients with cirrhosis and 12 patients free from liver disease undergoing abdominal surgery. A two-compartment open model was used in the pharmacokinetic analysis of the data. A two-fold increase in both the distribution half-life (T 1/2 alpha) from 11 min to 24 min and in the(More)
Plasma concentration curves of patients with normal and impaired renal function are fitted to a tri-exponential function according to an open three compartment pharmacokinetic model. A detailed discussion of the relationship between theoretical distribution volumes, clinical pharmacodynamics and morphological or biochemical structures provides the basis for(More)
The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a new non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, Org 9426, were investigated. Ten patients undergoing elective head and neck surgery and anaesthetized with nitrous oxide, halothane and fentanyl, received a bolus dose of Org 9426 (1 mg.kg-1, 3 x ED90). The isometric contractions of the adductor pollicis muscle(More)
A method has been developed for blood-brain barrier disruption to provide reproducible access to the cerebrospinal fluid of the cerebello-medullary cistern. The technique was used successfully to investigate transfer of pancuronium to the cerebral CSF compartment in pigs. After osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier, pancuronium concentrations(More)
The neuromuscular blocking effects and pharmacokinetics of ORG 9426, 1.5 mg/kg and ORG 9616, 1.2 mg/kg iv, two new nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs, were studied in 28 cats (i.e., 14 cats with each drug) with and without renal pedicle ligation. A gas chromatographic assay was used to determine the concentrations of ORG 9426 and ORG 9616 and its(More)
The neuromuscular effects of three new nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs, atracurium, vecuronium and Duador, were investigated in surgical patients under balanced anaesthesia. (The numbers of patients in each study are given in the tables.) There were no significant differences in the neuromuscular effects of the three agents. None showed any(More)
Hypothermia prolongs the time-course of action of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. The mechanism, however, is unknown. We studied the influence of hypothermia (by surface cooling, nasopharyngeal temperature < or = 31 degrees C) on the time-course of action and on the pharmacokinetics of rocuronium in humans. Nineteen neurosurgical patients(More)
Unexpectedly, it was observed that the P2-purinoceptor antagonist, suramin (10 microM to 1 mM), reversed the muscle paralysis caused by structurally unrelated non-depolarizing relaxants. Suramin competitively reversed the blocking action of pancuronium. Both the pre- and postsynaptic blockade of nicotinic receptors by pancuronium was counteracted, as shown(More)
To elucidate the interaction of 4-aminopyridine with neostigmine and pyridostigmine, the authors studied 57 anesthetized surgical patients using a technique of constant infusion of pancuronium to quantitate antagonist activity. 4-Aminopyridine, 0.15 or 0.35 mg/kg, produced no antagonism, while 0.5 mg/kg produced a mean 24 +/- 6 per cent (peak) antagonism.(More)