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A seasonal model, where a growing season is defined as the time between sowing and harvest and alternates with an inter-crop period, was derived to study the effects of the ‘cost of virulence’ and cropping ratio on durability of resistance. We assumed a single strain of virulent pathogen, a single strain of avirulent pathogen and two cultivars (one(More)
In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate) and Check Mite+ (coumaphos) and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the(More)
European foulbrood (EFB) persists in England and Wales despite current treatment methods, all of which include feeding honey bee colonies with the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC). A large-scale field experiment was conducted to monitor a husbandry-based method, using comb replacement (known as Shook swarm), as a drug free EFB control option. The(More)
ABSTRACT Two models for predicting Septoria tritici on winter wheat (cv. Riband) were developed using a program based on an iterative search of correlations between disease severity and weather. Data from four consecutive cropping seasons (1993/94 until 1996/97) at nine sites throughout England were used. A qualitative model predicted the presence or(More)
Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral(More)
Walked spotlight transect surveys with distance sampling were used to estimate regional population densities of badger (Meles meles), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in south-west England (Cornwall, Devon, Gloucestershire, Herefordshire) and Wales (Pembrokeshire, Borders, North Wales). All regions were surveyed during spring 2006 with(More)
Control of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in cattle has proven particularly challenging where reservoirs of infection exist in wildlife populations. In Britain and Ireland, control is hampered by a reservoir of infection in Eurasian badgers (Meles meles). Badger culling has positive and negative effects on bovine TB in cattle and is difficult, costly and(More)
Many pollinator populations are declining, with large economic and ecological implications. Parasites are known to be an important factor in the some of the population declines of honey bees and bumblebees, but little is known about the parasites afflicting most other pollinators, or the extent of interspecific transmission or vectoring of parasites. Here(More)
Many wildlife species forage on sewage-contaminated food, for example, at wastewater treatment plants and on fields fertilized with sewage sludge. The resultant exposure to human pharmaceuticals remains poorly studied for terrestrial species. On the basis of predicted exposure levels in the wild, we administered the common antidepressant fluoxetine (FLUOX)(More)
Global change (climate change together with other worldwide anthropogenic processes such as increasing trade, air pollution and urbanization) will affect plant health at the genetic, individual, population and landscape level. Direct effects include ecosystem stress due to natural resources shortage or imbalance. Indirect effects include (i) an increased(More)