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Conservation scientists generally agree that many types of protected areas will be needed to protect tropical forests. But little is known of the comparative performance of inhabited and uninhabited reserves in slowing the most extreme form of forest disturbance: conversion to agriculture. We used satellite-based maps of land cover and fire occurrence in(More)
A high incidence of tumor regression was observed in guinea pigs bearing transplantable, line-10 hepatocellular carcinomas when synthetic muramyl dipeptides combined with trehalose dimycolate in oil-in-water emulsions were injected directly into the tumors. These compounds are promising candidates to replace viable bacillus Calmette-Guérin in cancer(More)
We described elsewhere that the synergistic antitumor activity of endotoxic extracts from Re mutants of gram-negative bacteria and trehalose mycolate against guinea pig syngeneic line 10 tumor was abrogated after peptide substances accompanying these extracts had been removed. This activity could be restored by combining peptide-free endotoxin either with(More)
Chapter 5. Should we include avoidance of deforestation in the international response to climate change? Chapter 11. Privately-owned forests and deforestation reduction: an overview of policy and legal issues. Acknowledgements This book represents the effort of a group of contributors that believes that finding the means to promote large-scale reduction of(More)
The 280,000 km² Xingu indigenous lands and protected areas (ILPAs) corridor, inhabited by 24 indigenous peoples and about 215 riverine (ribeirinho) families, lies across active agriculture frontiers in some of the historically highest-deforestation regions of the Amazon. Much of the Xingu is anthropogenic landscape, densely inhabited and managed by(More)
The effects of two aminobutyryl and four seryl analogs of the synthetic muramyl dipeptide (MDP) against aerosol infections with influenza virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were studied. Regardless of the MDP analog employed, there was no evidence that the resistance against viral and bacterial aerosol infections was enhanced in the treated mice. In(More)
N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, or muramyl dipeptide (MDP), has been shown to be the minimal structure necessary for adjuvant activity. This compound can replace whole mycobacteria in Freund's complete adjuvant. In our continuing investigation of bacterial cell wall fragments of biological and immunotherapeutic interest, the necessity of obtaining(More)