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The common-property problem results in excessive mining, hunting, and extraction of oil and water. The same phenomenon is also responsible for excessive investment in R&D and excessive outlays in rent-seeking contests. We propose a ''Partnership Solution'' to eliminate or at least mitigate these excesses. Each of N players joins a partnership in the first(More)
Many economic environments are susceptible to either free-riding or overuse. Common pool resources (CPRs) fall in the latter category. Equally sharing the output of a CPR in partnerships introduces a free-riding incentive that may offset overuse. Socially optimal harvesting can be induced by dividing the set of resource users into a number of partnerships(More)
Many economic decisions are susceptible to either free-riding, or excessive rivalry or overextraction. Equally sharing output in partnerships introduces a free-riding incentive which may offset the latter. We conduct a laboratory experiment to assess the performance of output sharing in partnerships by introducing equal-sharing subgroups of size one, four(More)
Despite substantial reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in the United States, the success of emission control programs in optimal ozone reduction is disputable because they do not consider the spatial and temporal differences in health and environmental damages caused by NOx emissions. This shortcoming in the current U.S. NOx control policy is(More)
Cap-and-trade programs have proven to be effective instruments for achieving environmental goals while incurring minimum cost. The nature of the pollutant, however, affects the design of these programs. NO(x), an ozone precursor, is a nonuniformly mixed pollutant with a short atmospheric lifetime. NO(x) cap-and-trade programs in the U.S. are successful in(More)
The common property problem, first analyzed in the context of overfishing (Gor-don, 1954), is ubiquitous: independent tax authorities will overtax the same base (Berkowitz and Li, 2000), and independent researchers will exert excessive effort to make the same breakthrough (Wright, 1983). We propose a " Partnership Solution " to this common property problem.(More)
Using a Markov chain approach we rederive the exact density functional for hard-rod mixtures on a one-dimensional lattice, which forms the basis of the lattice fundamental measure theory. The transition probability in the Markov chain depends on a set of occupation numbers, which reflects the property of a zero-dimensional cavity to hold at most one(More)
This paper provides an experimental testing ground for an equal output-sharing partnership approach as a common pool resource (CPR) management instrument. It examines the behaviour of resource users in output-sharing partnerships of different sizes, and evaluates the impact of partnership size and the way partners are assigned on effort (extraction) levels.(More)
In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, fungi and plants exchange nutrients (sugars and phosphate, for instance) for reciprocal benefit. Until now it is not clear how this nutrient exchange system works. Here, we used computational cell biology to simulate the dynamics of a network of proton pumps and proton-coupled transporters that are upregulated(More)
UNLABELLED A common measure used in air quality benefit-cost assessment is marginal benefit (MB), or the monetized societal benefit of reducing 1 ton of emissions. Traditional depictions of MB for criteria air pollutants are such that each additional ton of emission reduction incurs less benefit than the previous ton. Using adjoint sensitivity analysis in a(More)