Stephan R Wisniewski

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OBJECTIVE To describe the effect of cholinesterase inhibitors (CEIs) on the natural course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS The short and long term effects of CEIs were evaluated in 135 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease relative to 135 patients who were never exposed to CEIs matched by age, education, duration of the symptoms, and cognitive(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether the use of psychiatric medication and the presence of abnormal behaviors affects the progression of Alzheimer disease. DESIGN Cross-sectional with longitudinal follow-up and the likelihood of arriving at 4 end points: (1) Mini-Mental State Examination score of 9 or lower; (2) Blessed Dementia Rating Scale score of 15 or higher(More)
Cytokines may play an important role in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cyotkine that plays a role in regenerative processes within the central nervous system (CNS), whereas interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an antiinflammatory cytokine. Both have been measured in serum and cerebrospinal(More)
BACKGROUND The objectives of this study were to determine effects of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of myelin basic protein (MBP) and to assess relationships between clinical variables and CSF MBP concentrations. METHODS We measured serial CSF MBP concentrations in children enrolled in a randomized(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the differences in the pattern of progression between AD and AD with Lewy bodies (AD+LB). METHODS The authors examined predictors of functional and cognitive disability, institutionalization, and death, as well as time to the development of psychosis (e.g., delusions, hallucinations), extrapyramidal signs (EPS), diurnal hypersomnia,(More)
OBJECTIVE 1) To examine the clinical differences between AD and AD with Lewy bodies (AD+LB); and 2) to determine the accuracy of Consensus guidelines for the clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) at different levels of dementia severity. METHODS The authors examined the clinical characteristics of 185 patients with pathologically diagnosed(More)
To further describe the pathophysiologic processes that occur in infants and young children after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), we retrospectively reviewed the cerebral blood flow (CBF) values and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scores (GOS) in 30 children < or = 8 years old (25 were < or = 4 years old) with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) on admission of < or =(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the experience of a research clinic diagnosing AD during the last two decades, with special emphasis on patients who meet the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for probable AD, their patterns of clinical presentation, and(More)
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) are widely used clinical scoring systems to measure the severity of neurologic injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but have recognized limitations in infants and small children. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100B show promise as markers of(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the experience of a research clinic diagnosing possible AD during the last two decades. BACKGROUND The National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for possible AD are generally used to indicate that a patient has AD in association with(More)