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Identifying causal networks is important for effective policy and management recommendations on climate, epidemiology, financial regulation, and much else. We introduce a method, based on nonlinear state space reconstruction, that can distinguish causality from correlation. It extends to nonseparable weakly connected dynamic systems (cases not covered by(More)
Compensatory or catch-up growth (CG) is widely observed following periods of resource deprivation. Because of this commonness, it is generally assumed that compensatory growth is adaptive, but most theory to date has explicitly ignored considerations of fitness. Following a period of deprivation, when resources become plentiful again, individuals may not(More)
Some overharvested fish populations fail to recover even after considerable reductions in fishing pressure. The reasons are unclear but may involve genetic changes in life history traits that are detrimental to population growth when natural environmental factors prevail. We empirically modelled this process by subjecting populations of a harvested marine(More)
Transgenerational plasticity (TGP), a generalisation of more widely studied maternal effects, occurs whenever environmental cues experienced by either parent prior to fertilisation results in a modification of offspring reaction norms. Such effects have been observed in many traits across many species. Despite enormous potential importance-particularly in(More)
Maternal effects are increasingly recognized as important drivers of population dynamics and determinants of evolutionary trajectories. Recently, there has been a proliferation of studies finding or citing a positive relationship between maternal size/age and offspring size or offspring quality. The relationship between maternal phenotype and offspring size(More)
Evolutionary responses to the long-term exploitation of individuals from a population may include reduced growth rate, age at maturation, body size and productivity. Theoretical models suggest that these genetic changes may be slow or impossible to reverse but rigorous empirical evidence is lacking. Here, we provide the first empirical demonstration of a(More)
Many ectotherms exhibit striking latitudinal gradients in lifespan. However, it is unclear whether lifespan gradients in distantly related taxa share a common mechanistic explanation. We compiled data on geographic variation in lifespan in ectotherms from around the globe to determine how much of this intraspecific variation in lifespan may be explained by(More)
Several recent studies have demonstrated that rapid growth early in life leads to decreased physiological performance. Nearly all involved experiments over short time periods (<1 day) to control for potentially confounding effects of size. This approach, however, neglects the benefits an individual accrues by growing. The net effect of growth can only be(More)
Although fitness typically increases with body size and selection gradients on size are generally positive, much of this information comes from terrestrial taxa. In the early life history of fish, there is evidence of selection both for and against larger size, leaving open the question of whether the general pattern for terrestrial taxa is valid for fish.(More)