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The PRR on Gender and Development Working Paper Series disseminates the findings of work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideas about the Policy Research Report. The papers carry the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions are the author's own and do not necessarily represent the view of(More)
In many Asian countries the ratio of male to female population is higher than in the West: as high as 1.07 in China and India, and even higher in Pakistan. A number of authors (most notably Amartya Sen) have suggested that this imbalance reflects excess female mortality and have argued that as many as 100 million women are " missing. " This paper proposes(More)
Using crosscountry and panel regressions, this article investigates how gender inequality in education affects long-term economic growth. Such inequality is found to have an effect on economic growth that is robust to changes in specifications and controls for potential endogeneities. The results suggest that gender inequality in education directly affects(More)
While in many African countries, open unemployment is largely confined to urban areas and thus overall rates are quite low, in South Africa, open unemployment rates hover around 30%, with rural unemployment rates being even higher than that. This is despite the near complete absence of an unemployment insurance system and little labour market regulation(More)
Development Report (HDR) in an effort to chart the progress of broad indicators of well-being around the world. In contrast to a focus on income as the sole measure of economic progress, these reports have also emphasized the importance of other indicators of well-being that are often not closely related to income, such as life expectancy and education.(More)
Any opinions expressed here are those of the author(s) and not those of the institute. Research disseminated by IZA may include views on policy, but the institute itself takes no institutional policy positions. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn is a local and virtual international research center and a place of communication between(More)
We examine the measurement of individual poverty in an intertemporal context. Our aim is to capture the importance of persistence in a state of poverty and we characterize a corresponding individual intertemporal poverty measure. Our first axiom requires that intertemporal poverty is identical to static poverty in the degenerate single-period case. The(More)
Millennium Development Goals at Midpoint: Where do we stand and where do we need to go? Support from the CIREM is gratefully acknowledged 1 Paper written in the framework of the joint initiative "Mobilising European Research for Development Policies" for the European Commission (DG Development and Relations with