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BACKGROUND & AIMS Bacterial wall products play an important role in the activation of immune and nonimmune cells of the intestinal mucosa. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR2 and TLR4 have been identified as signaling receptors activated by bacterial wall components. METHODS Expression of TLRs in human intestinal mucosa obtained by endoscopy and surgery was(More)
Members of the Bcl-2 protein family play crucial roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by regulating apoptosis in response to developmental cues or exogenous stress. Proapoptotic BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 family are essential for initiation of cell death, and they function by activating the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and/or Bak,(More)
Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) form the largest surface of the human body and are of pivotal importance to digest and absorb nutrients. Furthermore these cells play a critical role shielding the organism against microorganisms and toxins present in the intestinal lumen. It is therefore not surprising that a large group of researchers take great interest(More)
Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) is an adaptor protein bridging death receptors with initiator caspases. Thus, its function and localization are assumed to be cytoplasmic, although the localization of endogenous FADD has not been reported. Surprisingly, the data presented here demonstrate that FADD is mainly nuclear in several adherent cell lines.(More)
Apoptosis after the loss of cell anchorage--"anoikis"--plays an important role in the life cycle of adherent cells. Furthermore, loss of anchorage dependency is believed to be a critical step in metastatic transformation. The aim of this study was to further characterize the sequence of intracellular events during anoikis in a nontransformed population of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are associated with chronic tissue damage and continuous tissue repair. A central, but not well-characterized, event during this process is the migration of activated fibroblasts to the wound. METHODS Human colonic lamina propria fibroblasts (CLPF) were isolated from patients with CD and(More)
Stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and CXCR4 comprise a unique chemokine/chemokine receptor pair, exhibiting important functions in morphogenesis and growth regulation as well as attractant properties on T lymphocytes. No data are available on SDF-1 and CXCR4 in normal or pathological thyroid tissues. SDF-1, CXCR4, and CD18 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)(More)
Several effects of bile acids (BAs) on colonic epithelial cells (CECs) have been described, including induction of proliferation and apoptosis. Some of these effects are mediated through activation of the NF-kappa B transcriptional system. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the BA-induced gene expression in CECs. The human(More)
A tissue-protective effect of interleukin-11 (IL-11) for the intestinal mucosa has been postulated from animal models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite the fact that the clinical usefulness of the anti-inflammatory effects of this cytokine is presently investigated in patients with IBD, there are no data available regarding the target cells of(More)
BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF) is a sentinel considered to register damage at the cytoskeleton and to convey a death signal to B-cell lymphoma 2. B-cell lymphoma 2 is neutralized by BMF and thereby facilitates cytochrome C release from mitochondria. We investigated the role of BMF for intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) homeostasis. Acute colitis was induced in(More)