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We tested the hypothesis that isolated steroids, claimed to act like pheromones, affect human psychological state or mood. In the first experiment, we established that two steroids, Delta4, 16-androstadien-3-one and 1,3,5(10)16-estratetraen-3-ol, modulated emotional states within 6 min of exposure. In men and women, neither steroid had specific effects on(More)
We examined the physiological and psychological effects of nanomolar amounts of steroids applied directly under the nose (Delta4,16-androstadien-3-one and 1,3,5,(10),16-estratetraen-3-ol). These potential human chemosignals were not consciously discernible in a strong-odor carrier (clove oil and propylene glycol). In a double-blind, within-subject,(More)
The human chemosignal, Delta 4,16-androstadien-3-one modulates psychological state without being consciously discernible as an odor. This study demonstrates that Delta 4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone) alters cerebral glucose utilization both in subcortical regions and in areas of the neocortex not exclusively associated with olfaction. These widely(More)
Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes; however, the multiple mechanisms causing insulin resistance are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore the possible contribution of intramyocellular lipid content in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. We compared insulin-resistant(More)
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a naturally occuring compound and a radical scavenger was shown to enhance glucose transport and utilization in different experimental and animal models. Clinical studies described an increase of insulin sensitivity after acute and short-term (10 d) parenteral administration of ALA. The effects of a 4-week oral treatment with(More)
BACKGROUND Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is regarded as an early step in the development of atherosclerosis. Among the pathogenetic factors leading to atherosclerosis, the role of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia as independent risk factors is still under debate. In this study, we examined the association between ED and insulin resistance in(More)
The existence of metabolically relevant intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) as assessed by the noninvasive (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been established. In the present studies, we analyzed the relationships between IMCL in two muscle types [the predominantly nonoxidative tibialis muscle (tib) and the predominantly oxidative soleus muscle(More)
Insulin resistance of skeletal muscle glucose disposal underlies the pathogenesis of NIDDM and is associated with hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are used primarily in antihypertensive therapy but also are known to improve whole-body insulin-mediated glucose disposal. However, the exact site of action(More)
We conducted a meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies to evaluate all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who received sulphonylurea (SU) treatment, when compared to any other diabetes treatment. Only studies reporting raw data on mortality during SU treatment were included. Data were combined(More)
Insulin resistance of skeletal muscle glucose uptake is a prominent feature of Type II diabetes (NIDDM); therefore pharmacological interventions should aim to improve insulin sensitivity. Alpha-lipoic acid (CAS 62-46-4, thioctic acid, ALA), a natural occurring compound frequently used for treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy, enhances glucose utilization in(More)