Stephan Gromer

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The thioredoxin system-formed by thioredoxin reductase and its characteristic substrate thioredoxin-is an important constituent of the intracellular redox milieu. Interactions with many different metabolic pathways such as DNA-synthesis, selenium metabolism, and the antioxidative network as well as significant species differences render this system an(More)
Human thioredoxin reductase is a pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase closely related to glutathione reductase but differing from the latter in having a Cys-SeCys (selenocysteine) sequence as an additional redox center. Because selenoproteins cannot be expressed yet in heterologous systems, we optimized the purification of the protein from placenta(More)
Proteins containing the 21st amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) are present in the three domains of life. However, within lower eukaryotes, particularly parasitic protists, the dependence on the trace element selenium is variable as many organisms lost the ability to utilize Sec. Herein, we analyzed the genomes of Trypanosoma and Leishmania for the presence of(More)
Selenium, an essential trace element for mammals, is incorporated into a selected class of selenoproteins as selenocysteine. All known isoenzymes of mammalian thioredoxin (Trx) reductases (TrxRs) employ selenium in the C-terminal redox center -Gly-Cys-Sec-Gly-COOH for reduction of Trx and other substrates, whereas the corresponding sequence in Drosophila(More)
Methylene blue (MB) has experienced a renaissance mainly as a component of drug combinations against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, we report biochemically relevant pharmacological data on MB such as rate constants for the uncatalyzed reaction of MB at pH 7.4 with cellular reductants like NAD(P)H (k = 4 M(-1) s(-1)), thioredoxins (k = 8.5 to 26 M(-1)(More)
The public perception of selenium has changed significantly over the last decades. Originally mainly known for its high toxicity, it was later recognized as an essential trace element and is now (despite its narrow therapeutic window) almost being marketed as a lifestyle drug. Indeed, some clinical and preclinical studies suggest that selenium(More)
The pathophysiology of kwashiorkor, a severe edematous manifestation of malnutrition, is still poorly understood. The syndrome is, however, known to be associated with alterations in redox metabolism. To further elucidate the role of oxidative stress in kwashiorkor, we carried out a longitudinal study on the major blood antioxidants at the St. Joseph's(More)
Biochemical and clinical evidence indicates that monomethylated selenium compounds are crucial for the tumor preventive effects of the trace element selenium and that methylselenol (CH(3)SeH) is a key metabolite. As suggested by Ganther (Ganther, H. E. (1999) Carcinogenesis 20, 1657-1666), methylselenol and its precursor methylseleninate might exert their(More)