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Cyclin A is a stable protein in S and G2 phases, but is destabilized when cells enter mitosis and is almost completely degraded before the metaphase to anaphase transition. Microinjection of antibodies against subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) or against human Cdc20 (fizzy) arrested cells at metaphase and stabilized both cyclins A(More)
In Xenopus oocytes, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) kinase Bub1 is required for cytostatic factor (CSF)-induced metaphase arrest in meiosis II. To investigate whether matured mouse oocytes are kept in metaphase by a SAC-mediated inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) complex, we injected a dominant-negative Bub1 mutant (Bub1dn)(More)
According to current understanding, cytoplasmic events including activation of protease cascades and mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) participate in the control of nuclear apoptosis. However, the relationship between protease activation and PT has remained elusive. When apoptosis is induced by cross-linking of the Fas/APO-1/CD95 receptor,(More)
Auxiliary beta subunits are critical determinants of membrane expression and gating properties of voltage-gated calcium channels. Mutations in the beta(4) subunit gene cause ataxia and epilepsy. However, the specific function of beta(4) in neurons and its causal relation to neurological diseases are unknown. Here we report the localization of the beta(4)(More)
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) has proven to be an excellent fluorescent marker for protein expression and localisation in living cells [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Several mutant GFPs with distinct fluorescence excitation and emission spectra have been engineered for intended use in multi-labelling experiments [6] [7] [8] [9]. Discrimination of these(More)
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade regulates proliferation, differentiation, and survival in multicellular organisms. Scaffold proteins regulate intracellular signaling by providing critical spatial and temporal specificity. The scaffold protein MEK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase and ERK kinase 1) partner (MP1) is localized to late(More)
Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members are critical for the regulation of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) survival. Little is known about the role of their pro-apoptotic antagonists, i.e. 'BH3-only' proteins, in this cell compartment. Based on the analysis of cytokine deprivation-induced changes in mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2 family(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism that has been conserved in evolution from yeast to man. Double stranded RNA, which is either expressed by cellular genes for small non-coding RNAs, by parasitic nucleic acids, such as viruses or transposons, or is expressed as an experimental tool, becomes processed into small RNAs, which induce gene(More)
The β subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels regulate surface expression and gating of CaV1 and CaV2 α1 subunits and thus contribute to neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, and calcium-induced gene regulation. In addition, certain β subunits are targeted into the nucleus, where they interact directly with the epigenetic machinery. Whereas(More)
Spindly recruits a fraction of cytoplasmic dynein to kinetochores for poleward movement of chromosomes and control of mitotic checkpoint signaling. Here we show that human Spindly is a cell cycle-regulated mitotic phosphoprotein that interacts with the Rod/ZW10/Zwilch (RZZ) complex. The kinetochore levels of Spindly are regulated by microtubule attachment(More)