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Effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on photoreceptor development in dissociated cultures of embryonic chick and newborn rat retina were studied using opsin immunoreactivity to characterize photoreceptor differentiation. In the presence of CNTF, the number of photoreceptors was increased by up to 200% in chick cultures, but was reduced by 82-99% in(More)
Previous in vitro studies have convincingly demonstrated the involvement of diffusible factors in the regulation of photoreceptor development. We now provide evidence that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) represents one of these regulatory molecules. In low density monolayer cultures prepared from embryonic day 8 chick retina, photoreceptor development(More)
The development of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina is thought to be controlled by extrinsic signals. We have shown previously that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) potently inhibits photoreceptor differentiation in cultures of rat retina. The present study analyzes which developmental processes are affected by CNTF. Rod differentiation as(More)
Previous studies suggest that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) may represent one of the extrinsic signals controlling the development of vertebrate retinal photoreceptors. In dissociated cultures from embryonic chick retina, exogenously applied CNTF has been shown to act on postmitotic rod precursor cells, resulting in an two- to fourfold increase in the(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) exerts a multiplicity of effects on a broad spectrum of target cells, including retinal neurons. To investigate how this functional complexity relates to the regulation of CNTF receptor alpha (CNTFR alpha) expression, we have studied the developmental expression of the receptor protein in chick retina by using(More)
Keywords: garbage collection, microcontroller, Java microprocessor, real-time, multithreading We envision the upcoming of microcontrollers and systems-on-a-chip that are based on multithreaded processor kernels due to the fast context switching ability of hardware multithreading. Moreover we envision an extensive market for Java-based applications in(More)
Functional characteristics of tuberculosis (TB)-specific CD4 T cells were studied in clinically active pulmonary TB (n = 21) and high TB exposure including LTBI (n = 17). Following tuberculin stimulation, activated CD4 T cells were identified by flow-cytometry (CD154 up-regulation, degranulation, interferon γ [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], and(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by an abnormal cellular and cytokine infiltration of inflamed joints. This study addresses a previously unrecognized interaction between neutrophilic-myeloperoxidase (MPO) and macrophages (Mphi) which could explain the perpetuation of inflammation associated with RA. A monoarticular arthritis was induced in female(More)
In this study we describe a large-scale screening cell ELISA protocol which is suitable for the characterization of exogenic factor effects in mixed central nervous system (CNS) culture. The main novelty of the assay is that it permits the measurement of cellular responses in populations comprising as little as 2-4% of the total cell number. For(More)
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