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The effects of irradiances of 920 and 1200 mW m(-2) (biologically effective weighted irradiance) were examined in 2 Metarhizium album strains, 26 M. anisopliae strains, 1 M. flavoviride strain, and 1 M. taii strain isolated from sites located at latitudes from 61 degrees N to 54 degrees S. Conidia were exposed to UV-B from 1 to 6 h and subsequently examined(More)
The potential effects of increased ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) simulating stratospheric ozone depletion in field studies with vascular plants have previously been summarized only in narrative literature reviews. In this quantitative synthesis, we have assessed the significance of solar UV-B enhancement for ten commonly measured variables(More)
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-A and UV-B) is a major factor in failure of programs using the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae as a biological control agent. Studies were conducted to determine if growth conditions, viz. artificial (agar media or rice grain) or natural (infected insects) substrates for conidial production affect two traits(More)
We tested the effects of irradiances of 920 and 1200 mW m-2 (weighted irradiance) on the conidia and germinants of the entomopathogenic Hyphomycete Metarhizium anisopliae. The conidia were exposed to the two irradiances for 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 or 8 h. Increased exposure decreased relative percent culturability. The inactivation provoked by the irradiance of 1200(More)
The entomopathogenic hyphomycete Metarhizium anisopliae has been used in programs of agricultural pest and disease vector control in several countries. Exposure to simulated solar radiation for a few hours can completely inactivate the conidia of the fungus. In the present study we determined the effect of exposures to full-spectrum sunlight and to solar(More)
We evaluated the effects of exposure to doses supplied at an environmentally realistic intensity of UV-B radiation (800 mW m(-2) weighted irradiance) on the culturability and germination of selected strains of the entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes Verticillium lecanii and Aphanocladium album. Increased UV-B exposure decreased relative percent culturability for(More)
Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field(More)
There have been significant advances in our understanding of the effects of UV-B radiation on terrestrial ecosystems, especially in the description of mechanisms of plant response. A further area of highly interesting research emphasizes the importance of indirect UV radiation effects on plants, pathogens, herbivores, soil microbes and ecosystem processes(More)
The importance of conidial pigmentation to solar UV radiation tolerance in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, was estimated by comparing the effects of exposure to simulated solar UV radiation on the wild-type parent strain U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Collection of(More)
Light conditions can influence fungal development. Some spectral wavebands can induce conidial production, whereas others can kill the conidia, reducing the population size and limiting dispersal. The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose in several crops. During the asexual stage on the host plant, Colletototrichum produces(More)