Stephan Borkenfeld

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Pathology informatics has evolved to varying levels around the world. The history of pathology informatics in different countries is a tale with many dimensions. At first glance, it is the familiar story of individuals solving problems that arise in their clinical practice to enhance efficiency, better manage (e.g., digitize) laboratory information, as well(More)
BACKGROUND Telecommunication has matured to a broadly applied tool in diagnostic pathology. TECHNOLOGY AND SYSTEMS Contemporary with the development of fast electronic communication lines (Integrated digital network services (ISDN), broad band connections, and fibre optics, as well as the digital imaging technology (digital camera), telecommunication in(More)
The distribution of diagnosis-associated information in histological slides is often spatial dependent. A reliable selection of the slide areas containing the most significant information to deriving the associated diagnosis is a major task in virtual microscopy. Three different algorithms can be used to select the appropriate fields of view: 1) Object(More)
Virtual microscopy can be applied in an interactive and an automated manner. Interactive application is performed in close association to conventional microscopy. It includes image standardization suitable to the performance of an individual pathologist such as image colorization, white color balance, or individual adjusted brightness. The steering commands(More)
E-education or electronically transferred continuous education in pathology is one major application of virtual microscopy. The basic conditions and properties of acoustic and visual information transfer, of teaching and learning processes, as well as of knowledge and competence, influence its implementation to a high degree. Educational programs and(More)
Diagnostic surgical pathology or tissue–based diagnosis still remains the most reliable and specific diagnostic medical procedure. The development of whole slide scanners permits the creation of virtual slides and to work on so-called virtual microscopes. In addition to interactive work on virtual slides approaches have been reported that introduce(More)
Present stage Telepathology started in Europe in the 1980s. It was implemented in closed communication systems and focussed on frozen section service [1,2]. Open systems embedded in open source software replaced the early communication about 10 years ago. They became to age, and nearly all of them closed [3]. A new era started with the medical electronic(More)
CONTEXT Virtual microscopy which is the diagnostic work with digitized microscopic images in tissue - based diagnosis is in its childhood in being implemented in routine diagnosis. Until today, only a few pathology institutions take use of this new technology, although it is available since several years. Why? DESIGN Virtual microscopy requires a new(More)
AIM To analyze the hypothesis of events or neighborhood interactions that is based upon recognizable structures of systems which possess a surface in a four dimensional space-time constellation {x, y, z, t}. To include the theory of hierarchic order of structures and aspects of thermodynamically open systems, especially entropy, structural entropy and(More)
BACKGROUND Application of virtual slides (VS), the digitalization of complete glass slides, is in its infancy to be implemented in routine diagnostic surgical pathology and to issues that are related to tissue-based diagnosis, such as education and scientific publication. APPROACH Electronic publication in Pathology offers new features of scientific(More)