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The taxonomy of the family Filoviridae (marburgviruses and ebolaviruses) has changed several times since the discovery of its members, resulting in a plethora of species and virus names and abbreviations. The current taxonomy has only been partially accepted by most laboratory virologists. Confusion likely arose for several reasons: species names that(More)
PURPOSE To determine the effect of age, examination, location, luminance, subject, and vigilance on reaction time (RT) in automated kinetic perimetry. METHODS Thirty-six normal volunteers (20-70 years old) underwent kinetic campimetric examinations, during which RTs (time from appearance of a stimulus to response) were recorded. Stimuli with a diameter of(More)
OBJECTIVES Recent studies have confirmed the contribution of the central nervous system (CNS) to the pathogenesis of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), because animal models of neuropathic pain syndromes demonstrate an overexpression of N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptors in the CNS. The aim of this work was to study the influence of a central acting(More)
Several major human pathogens, including the filoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and rhabdoviruses, package their single-stranded RNA genomes within helical nucleocapsids, which bud through the plasma membrane of the infected cell to release enveloped virions. The virions are often heterogeneous in shape, which makes it difficult to study their structure and(More)
The role of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and the regulatory subunit p47(phox) for hypoosmotic ROS generation was studied in cultured rat astrocytes and brain slices of wilde type and p47(phox) knock-out mice. Cultured rat astrocytes express mRNAs encoding for the regulatory subunit p47(phox), NOX1, 2, and 4, and the dual oxidases (DUOX)1 and 2, but not NOX3.(More)
PURPOSE To determine the effects of stimulus eccentricity and luminance level on the reaction time (RT) of young normal volunteers during automated kinetic campimetry. METHODS We used a specially designed video-campimetric device equipped with a continuous infrared (IR) pupillographic fixation control (Tübingen Computer Campimeter) and recorded reaction(More)
West Africa is currently witnessing the most extensive Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak so far recorded. Until now, there have been 27,013 reported cases and 11,134 deaths. The origin of the virus is thought to have been a zoonotic transmission from a bat to a two-year-old boy in December 2013 (ref. 2). From this index case the virus was spread by human-to-human(More)
The severe Ebola virus disease epidemic occurring in West Africa stems from a single zoonotic transmission event to a 2-year-old boy in Meliandou, Guinea. We investigated the zoonotic origins of the epidemic using wildlife surveys, interviews, and molecular analyses of bat and environmental samples. We found no evidence for a concurrent outbreak in larger(More)
The host cell protein tetherin can restrict the release of enveloped viruses from infected cells. The HIV-1 protein Vpu counteracts tetherin by removing it from the site of viral budding, the plasma membrane, and this process depends on specific interactions between the transmembrane domains of Vpu and tetherin. In contrast, the glycoproteins (GPs) of two(More)
The task of international expert groups is to recommend the classification and naming of viruses. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Filoviridae Study Group and other experts have recently established an almost consistent classification and nomenclature for filoviruses. Here, further guidelines are suggested to include their natural genetic(More)