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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Here we report the sequence of the region that determines rapid allograft rejection in chickens, the chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This 92-kilobase region of the B locus contains only 19 genes, making the chicken MHC roughly 20-fold smaller than the human MHC. Virtually all the genes have counterparts in the human MHC, defining a minimal(More)
DNA methylation is the most stable type of epigenetic modification modulating the transcriptional plasticity of mammalian genomes. Using bisulfite DNA sequencing, we report high-resolution methylation profiles of human chromosomes 6, 20 and 22, providing a resource of about 1.9 million CpG methylation values derived from 12 different tissues. Analysis of(More)
The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination(More)
Some years ago, we used our data for class I genes, proteins and peptide-binding specificities to develop the hypothesis that the chicken B-F/B-L region represents a "minimal essential MHC". In this view, the B locus contains the classical (highly expressed and polymorphic) class I alpha and class II beta multigene families, which are reduced to one or two(More)
The approximately 1-Mb leukocyte receptor complex at 19q13.4 is a key polymorphic immunoregion containing all of the natural killer-receptor KIR and related ILT genes. When the organization of the leukocyte receptor complex was compared from two haplotypes, the gene content in the KIR region varied dramatically, with framework loci flanking regions of(More)
The proteins encoded by the classical HLA class I and class II genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic and are essential in self versus non-self immune recognition. HLA variation is a crucial determinant of transplant rejection and susceptibility to a large number of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Yet identification(More)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the most important region in the vertebrate genome with respect to infection and autoimmunity, and is crucial in adaptive and innate immunity. Decades of biomedical research have revealed many MHC genes that are duplicated, polymorphic and associated with more diseases than any other region of the human genome.(More)
Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in identifying loci associated with common diseases, a substantial proportion of the causality remains unexplained. Recent advances in genomic technologies have placed us in a position to initiate large-scale studies of human disease-associated epigenetic variation, specifically variation in DNA(More)
DNA methylation is an indispensible epigenetic modification required for regulating the expression of mammalian genomes. Immunoprecipitation-based methods for DNA methylome analysis are rapidly shifting the bottleneck in this field from data generation to data analysis, necessitating the development of better analytical tools. In particular, an inability to(More)