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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human(More)
Here we report the sequence of the region that determines rapid allograft rejection in chickens, the chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This 92-kilobase region of the B locus contains only 19 genes, making the chicken MHC roughly 20-fold smaller than the human MHC. Virtually all the genes have counterparts in the human MHC, defining a minimal(More)
The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination(More)
Numerous genetic association studies have implicated the KIAA0319 gene on human chromosome 6p22 in dyslexia susceptibility. The causative variant(s) remains unknown but may modulate gene expression, given that (1) a dyslexia-associated haplotype has been implicated in the reduced expression of KIAA0319, and (2) the strongest association has been found for(More)
MOTIVATION The Illumina Infinium 450 k DNA Methylation Beadchip is a prime candidate technology for Epigenome-Wide Association Studies (EWAS). However, a difficulty associated with these beadarrays is that probes come in two different designs, characterized by widely different DNA methylation distributions and dynamic range, which may bias downstream(More)
DNA methylation is the most stable type of epigenetic modification modulating the transcriptional plasticity of mammalian genomes. Using bisulfite DNA sequencing, we report high-resolution methylation profiles of human chromosomes 6, 20 and 22, providing a resource of about 1.9 million CpG methylation values derived from 12 different tissues. Analysis of(More)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the most important region in the vertebrate genome with respect to infection and autoimmunity, and is crucial in adaptive and innate immunity. Decades of biomedical research have revealed many MHC genes that are duplicated, polymorphic and associated with more diseases than any other region of the human genome.(More)
The proteins encoded by the classical HLA class I and class II genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic and are essential in self versus non-self immune recognition. HLA variation is a crucial determinant of transplant rejection and susceptibility to a large number of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Yet identification(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that DNA methylation (DNAm) markers in peripheral blood may hold promise as diagnostic or early detection/risk markers for epithelial cancers. However, to date no study has evaluated the diagnostic and predictive potential of such markers in a large case control cohort and on a genome-wide basis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS By(More)