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UNLABELLED Caffeine is thought to act as a central stimulant and to have effects on physical, cognitive, and psychomotor functioning. PURPOSE To examine the effects of ingesting a performance bar, containing caffeine, before and during cycling exercise on physical and cognitive performance. METHODS Twenty-four well-trained cyclists consumed the products(More)
Computer modelling research has undermined the view that double dissociations in behaviour are sufficient to infer separability in the cognitive mechanisms underlying those behaviours. However, all these models employ multi-modal representational schemes, where functional specialisation of processing emerges from the training process. Targeted lesioning of(More)
Average testosterone levels and many cognitive functions show a decline with age. There is evidence to suggest that this association is not just age related. Results from cell culture and animal studies provide convincing evidence that testosterone could have protective effects on brain function. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised by brain pathology(More)
It is still debated whether estrogen treatment after the menopause could result in improved cognitive function in women. This debate is based on many animal and cell culture data showing that estrogens can positively affect the aging brain. Observational data also show a halved risk of dementia in women who took estrogens around the age of menopause.(More)
The purpose of this study was to assess pituitary gonadotropins and free testosterone levels in a larger cohort of men with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=112) and age-matched controls (n=98) from the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing (OPTIMA). We measured gonadotropins (follicle stimulating hormone, FSH, and luteinizing hormone, LH), sex hormone(More)
It has been suggested that a low-glycaemic index (GI) breakfast may be beneficial for some elements of cognitive function (e.g. memory and attention), but the effects are not clear, especially in adolescents. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast and breakfast omission on cognitive function(More)
Visual impairment is a common symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of visual interventions to improve the functioning of AD patients. Therefore, clarification of the profile of visual deficits in AD and possible mechanisms underlying these deficits are needed. This review focuses on three areas as mechanisms(More)
Previous fMRI studies have demonstrated preferential involvement of the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus in tasks of object and spatial memory, respectively. Here we investigated whether similar activity would also be present when object and spatial discrimination was assessed in the absence of explicit declarative memory demands. On each trial in the(More)
Low testosterone (T) levels may predispose to Alzheimer disease (AD), but it is unclear whether this is a co-morbid effect due to cachexia, subclinical hyperthyroidism or other co-morbidity. The biological plausibility for potential protective effects of T on brain functions is substantial. In addition, higher levels of gonadotropins found in older cases(More)
The aim of this study was to assess the relations of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) to cognitive functions in 15-year-old adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children while controlling for aerobic fitness. A sub-sample of 667 adolescents (M(age) = 15.4 ± 0.16 years; 55% females) who provided valid data on(More)