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In 1900, Ramón y Cajal advanced the neuron doctrine, defining the neuron as the fundamental signaling unit of the nervous system. Over a century later, neurobiologists address the circuit doctrine: the logic of the core units of neuronal circuitry that control animal behavior. These are circuits that can be called into action for perceptual, conceptual, and(More)
The motor pattern underlying swimming can be elicited in an in vitro preparation of the lamprey spinal cord by applying excitatory amino acids in the bath activating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and kainate receptors, but not quisqualate receptors. L-DOPA exerts a weak rythmogenic effect due to an action on kainate receptors. The kainate-induced(More)
The nervous system contains a toolbox of motor programs in the brainstem and spinal cord--that is, neuronal networks designed to handle the basic motor repertoire required for survival, including locomotion, posture, eye movements, breathing, chewing, swallowing and expression of emotions. The neural mechanisms responsible for selecting which motor program(More)
Most fish swim by the rhythmic passage of a wave of lateral displacement from head to tail, thereby developing a reactive thrust from the water which pushes the fish forward (Marey, 1894). Breder (1926) classified this type of swimming into different modes according to how much of the body performs undulations. In the anguilliform (eel-like) mode most or(More)
The networks of the brainstem and spinal cord that co-ordinate locomotion and body orientation in lamprey are described. The cycle-to-cycle pattern generation of these networks is produced by interacting glutamatergic and glycinergic neurones, with NMDA receptor-channels playing an important role at lower rates of locomotion. The fine tuning of the networks(More)
The intrastriatal microcircuit is a predominantly inhibitory GABAergic network comprised of a majority of projection neurons [medium spiny neurons (MSNs)] and a minority of interneurons. The connectivity within this microcircuit is divided into two main categories: lateral connectivity between MSNs, and inhibition mediated by interneurons, in particular(More)
1. In the in vitro preparation of the lamprey spinal cord, paired intracellular recordings of membrane potential were used to identify interneurons producing excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) on myotomal motoneurons. 2. Seventy-nine interneurons (8.4% of all neuron-motoneuron pairs tested) elicited unitary EPSPs that followed one-for-one at short,(More)