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In 1900, Ramón y Cajal advanced the neuron doctrine, defining the neuron as the fundamental signaling unit of the nervous system. Over a century later, neurobiologists address the circuit doctrine: the logic of the core units of neuronal circuitry that control animal behavior. These are circuits that can be called into action for perceptual, conceptual, and(More)
Neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) often store more than one neurotransmitter, but as yet the functional significance of this type of coexistence is poorly understood. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates calcium-dependent K+ channels (KCa) responsible for the postspike afterhyperpolarization in different regions of the CNS. In lamprey, 5-HT(More)
A central network of neurones in the spinal cord has been shown to produce a rhythmic motor output similar to locomotion after suppression of all afferent inflow. The experiments were performed mainly in acute spinal cats (th. 12), which had received DOPA i.v. and the monoamine oxidase inhibitor Nialamide. In some preparations all dorsal roots supplying the(More)
The nervous system contains a toolbox of motor programs in the brainstem and spinal cord--that is, neuronal networks designed to handle the basic motor repertoire required for survival, including locomotion, posture, eye movements, breathing, chewing, swallowing and expression of emotions. The neural mechanisms responsible for selecting which motor program(More)
The networks of the brainstem and spinal cord that co-ordinate locomotion and body orientation in lamprey are described. The cycle-to-cycle pattern generation of these networks is produced by interacting glutamatergic and glycinergic neurones, with NMDA receptor-channels playing an important role at lower rates of locomotion. The fine tuning of the networks(More)
1. Local application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the area in which a dense 5-HT plexus is located in the lamprey spinal cord leads to a marked depression of the late phase of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) following the action potential. This effect was observed in motoneurons, premotor interneurons, and giant interneurons, whereas no effect was(More)
The motor pattern underlying swimming can be elicited in an in vitro preparation of the lamprey spinal cord by applying excitatory amino acids in the bath activating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and kainate receptors, but not quisqualate receptors. L-DOPA exerts a weak rythmogenic effect due to an action on kainate receptors. The kainate-induced(More)