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Realistic computer simulations of the experimentally established local spinal cord neural network generating swimming in the lamprey have been performed. Populations of network interneurons were used in which cellular properties, like cell size and membrane conductance including voltage dependent ion channels were randomly distributed around experimentally(More)
The different neural control systems involved in goal-directed vertebrate locomotion are reviewed. They include not only the central pattern generator networks in the spinal cord that generate the basic locomotor synergy and the brainstem command systems for locomotion but also the control systems for steering and control of body orientation (posture) and(More)
In 1900, Ramón y Cajal advanced the neuron doctrine, defining the neuron as the fundamental signaling unit of the nervous system. Over a century later, neurobiologists address the circuit doctrine: the logic of the core units of neuronal circuitry that control animal behavior. These are circuits that can be called into action for perceptual, conceptual, and(More)
The nervous system contains a toolbox of motor programs in the brainstem and spinal cord--that is, neuronal networks designed to handle the basic motor repertoire required for survival, including locomotion, posture, eye movements, breathing, chewing, swallowing and expression of emotions. The neural mechanisms responsible for selecting which motor program(More)
The intrastriatal microcircuit is a predominantly inhibitory GABAergic network comprised of a majority of projection neurons [medium spiny neurons (MSNs)] and a minority of interneurons. The connectivity within this microcircuit is divided into two main categories: lateral connectivity between MSNs, and inhibition mediated by interneurons, in particular(More)
The spinal network coordinating locomotion in the lamprey serves as a model system, in which it has been possible to elucidate connectivity and cellular mechanisms using the isolated spinal cord. Locomotor burst activity alternates between the left and right side of a segment through reciprocal inhibition. We have recently shown that the burst generation(More)
A fundamental question in vertebrate locomotion is whether distinct spinal networks exist that are capable of generating rhythmic output for each group of muscle synergists. In many vertebrates including the lamprey, it has been claimed that burst activity depends on reciprocal inhibition between antagonists. This question was addressed in the isolated(More)
The ability to tackle analysis of the brain at multiple levels simultaneously is emerging from rapid methodological developments. The classical research strategies of "measure," "model," and "make" are being applied to the exploration of nervous system function. These include novel conceptual and theoretical approaches, creative use of mathematical(More)