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In 1900, Ramón y Cajal advanced the neuron doctrine, defining the neuron as the fundamental signaling unit of the nervous system. Over a century later, neurobiologists address the circuit doctrine: the logic of the core units of neuronal circuitry that control animal behavior. These are circuits that can be called into action for perceptual, conceptual, and(More)
Neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) often store more than one neurotransmitter, but as yet the functional significance of this type of coexistence is poorly understood. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates calcium-dependent K+ channels (KCa) responsible for the postspike afterhyperpolarization in different regions of the CNS. In lamprey, 5-HT(More)
A central network of neurones in the spinal cord has been shown to produce a rhythmic motor output similar to locomotion after suppression of all afferent inflow. The experiments were performed mainly in acute spinal cats (th. 12), which had received DOPA i.v. and the monoamine oxidase inhibitor Nialamide. In some preparations all dorsal roots supplying the(More)
The nervous system contains a toolbox of motor programs in the brainstem and spinal cord--that is, neuronal networks designed to handle the basic motor repertoire required for survival, including locomotion, posture, eye movements, breathing, chewing, swallowing and expression of emotions. The neural mechanisms responsible for selecting which motor program(More)
1. Local application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the area in which a dense 5-HT plexus is located in the lamprey spinal cord leads to a marked depression of the late phase of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) following the action potential. This effect was observed in motoneurons, premotor interneurons, and giant interneurons, whereas no effect was(More)
The intrastriatal microcircuit is a predominantly inhibitory GABAergic network comprised of a majority of projection neurons [medium spiny neurons (MSNs)] and a minority of interneurons. The connectivity within this microcircuit is divided into two main categories: lateral connectivity between MSNs, and inhibition mediated by interneurons, in particular(More)
Most fish swim by the rhythmic passage of a wave of lateral displacement from head to tail, thereby developing a reactive thrust from the water which pushes the fish forward (Marey, 1894). Breder (1926) classified this type of swimming into different modes according to how much of the body performs undulations. In the anguilliform (eel-like) mode most or(More)