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The motor system is the only available external output channel of the brain, or as formulated by Sherrington, “To move things is all mankind can do ... whether whispering, or felling a forest.”Various networks at different levels of the nervous system coordinate different motor patterns, be they eye or hand movements or those that underlie respiration,(More)
In 1900, Ramón y Cajal advanced the neuron doctrine, defining the neuron as the fundamental signaling unit of the nervous system. Over a century later, neurobiologists address the circuit doctrine: the logic of the core units of neuronal circuitry that control animal behavior. These are circuits that can be called into action for perceptual, conceptual, and(More)
The nervous system contains a toolbox of motor programs in the brainstem and spinal cord--that is, neuronal networks designed to handle the basic motor repertoire required for survival, including locomotion, posture, eye movements, breathing, chewing, swallowing and expression of emotions. The neural mechanisms responsible for selecting which motor program(More)
The motor pattern underlying swimming can be elicited in an in vitro preparation of the lamprey spinal cord by applying excitatory amino acids in the bath activating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and kainate receptors, but not quisqualate receptors. L-DOPA exerts a weak rythmogenic effect due to an action on kainate receptors. The kainate-induced(More)
The different neural control systems involved in goal-directed vertebrate locomotion are reviewed. They include not only the central pattern generator networks in the spinal cord that generate the basic locomotor synergy and the brainstem command systems for locomotion but also the control systems for steering and control of body orientation (posture) and(More)
Bath application of N-methyl-aspartate induces fictive locomotor activity in the isolated spinal cord preparation of the lamprey, as well as TTX-resistant membrane potential oscillations in many individual neurons. This inherent oscillatory activity is shown to depend on a specific activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. This activation(More)
Most fish swim by the rhythmic passage of a wave of lateral displacement from head to tail, thereby developing a reactive thrust from the water which pushes the fish forward (Marey, 1894). Breder (1926) classified this type of swimming into different modes according to how much of the body performs undulations. In the anguilliform (eel-like) mode most or(More)
The intrastriatal microcircuit is a predominantly inhibitory GABAergic network comprised of a majority of projection neurons [medium spiny neurons (MSNs)] and a minority of interneurons. The connectivity within this microcircuit is divided into two main categories: lateral connectivity between MSNs, and inhibition mediated by interneurons, in particular(More)