Steinar Hunskaar

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OBJECTIVE Estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI), overactive bladder (OAB), and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among men and women in five countries using the 2002 International Continence Society (ICS) definitions. METHODS This population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted between April and December 2005 in Canada,(More)
The formalin test in mice is a valid and reliable model of nociception and is sensitive for various classes of analgesic drugs. The noxious stimulus is an injection of dilute formalin (1% in saline) under the skin of the dorsal surface of the right hindpaw. The response is the amount of time the animals spend licking the injected paw. Two distinct periods(More)
The formalin test for nociception, which is predominantly used with rats and mice, involves moderate, continuous pain generated by injured tissue. In this way it differs from most traditional tests of nociception which rely upon brief stimuli of threshold intensity. In this article we describe the main features of the formalin test, including the(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim was to assess the prevalence of any urinary leakage in an unselected female population in Norway, and to estimate the prevalence of significant incontinence. METHODS The EPINCONT Study is part of a large survey (HUNT 2) performed in a county in Norway during 1995-97. Everyone aged 20 years or more was invited. 27,936 (80%) of 34,755(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence, type and treatment behaviour of women with urinary incontinence in four European countries. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Data were collected using a postal survey which was sent to 29,500 community-dwelling women aged > or = 18 years in France, Germany, Spain and the UK. Subjects were asked about the type of urinary(More)
In epidemiological surveys of female urinary incontinence, it is not feasible to demonstrate urine loss objectively. The aim of this study was to develop a valid epidemiological instrument (a severity index) for assessing the severity of incontinence. The severity index is based on information about frequency (four levels) and amount of leakage (two or(More)
This paper examines or current state of knowledge of the epidemiology of urinary incontinence. The population studied was community-dwelling non-institutionalized persons. The review includes discussion of the prevalence, incidence, natural history and presence of racial and ethnic differences in the epidemiology of urinary incontinence. We also review(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE The aim was to validate a simple severity index of female urinary incontinence for subsequent use in an epidemiological survey. DESIGN The index was created by multiplying the reported frequency (four levels) by the amount of leakage (two levels). The resulting index value (1-8) was further categorised into slight (1-2), moderate (3-4),(More)
A modification of the formalin test appropriate for testing of mice is described. Formalin 1 or 5% was injected into the dorsal surface of a hindpaw, and the time the animal spent licking the paw was recorded. On the basis of the response pattern, two distinct periods of intensive licking activity were identified; an early (0-5 min after injection) and a(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and associated risk factors. METHODS The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response(More)