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Climate warming affects the phenology, local abundance and large-scale distribution of plants and pollinators. Despite this, there is still limited knowledge of how elevated temperatures affect plant-pollinator mutualisms and how changed availability of mutualistic partners influences the persistence of interacting species. Here we review the evidence of(More)
Knowledge about plant-plant interactions for pollinator service at the plant community level is still scarce, although such interactions may be important to seed production and hence the population dynamics of individual plant species and the species compositions of communities. An important step towards a better understanding of pollination interactions at(More)
The pollination syndrome hypothesis has provided a major conceptual framework for how plants and pollinators interact. However, the assumption of specialization in pollination systems and the reliability of floral traits in predicting the main pollinators have been questioned recently. In addition, the relationship between ecological and evolutionary(More)
Dense ungulate populations in forest accompanied by high grazing intensities have the potential to affect plant population dynamics, and such herbivory effects on populations are hypothesised to differ along environmental gradients. We investigated red deer grazing and resource interaction effects on the performance and dynamics of the functionally(More)
Wild ungulates are key determinants in shaping boreal plant communities, and may also affect ecosystem function through inducing the plant defence systems of key plant species. We examined whether winter browsing by deer could increase the resistance of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). We used three indicators of induced bilberry defence: reduced growth (a),(More)
Inducible plant defense is a beneficial strategy for plants, which imply that plants should allocate resources from growth and reproduction to defense when herbivores attack. Plant ecologist has often studied defense responses in wild populations by biomass clipping experiments, whereas laboratory and greenhouse experiments in addition apply chemical(More)
Selective herbivory can influence both spatial and temporal vegetation heterogeneity. For example, many northern European populations of free-ranging ungulates have reached unprecedented levels, which can influence plant species turnover, long-term maintenance of biodiversity and the subsequent stability of boreal ecosystems. However, the mechanisms by(More)
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