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Climate warming affects the phenology, local abundance and large-scale distribution of plants and pollinators. Despite this, there is still limited knowledge of how elevated temperatures affect plant-pollinator mutualisms and how changed availability of mutualistic partners influences the persistence of interacting species. Here we review the evidence of(More)
Wild ungulates are key determinants in shaping boreal plant communities, and may also affect ecosystem function through inducing the plant defence systems of key plant species. We examined whether winter browsing by deer could increase the resistance of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus). We used three indicators of induced bilberry defence: reduced growth (a),(More)
Inducible plant defense is a beneficial strategy for plants, which imply that plants should allocate resources from growth and reproduction to defense when herbivores attack. Plant ecologist has often studied defense responses in wild populations by biomass clipping experiments, whereas laboratory and greenhouse experiments in addition apply chemical(More)
Selective herbivory can influence both spatial and temporal vegetation heterogeneity. For example, many northern European populations of free-ranging ungulates have reached unprecedented levels, which can influence plant species turnover, long-term maintenance of biodiversity and the subsequent stability of boreal ecosystems. However, the mechanisms by(More)
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