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A number of reconstructions of millennial-scale climate variability have been carried out in order to understand patterns of natural climate variability, on decade to century timescales, and the role of anthropogenic forcing. These reconstructions have mainly used tree-ring data and other data sets of annual to decadal resolution. Lake and ocean sediments(More)
The conceptual ability to source, combine, and store substances that enhance technology or social practices represents a benchmark in the evolution of complex human cognition. Excavations in 2008 at Blombos Cave, South Africa, revealed a processing workshop where a liquefied ochre-rich mixture was produced and stored in two Haliotis midae (abalone) shells(More)
The thermal springs Trollosen and Fisosen, located on the High Arctic archipelago Svalbard, discharge saline groundwaters rich in hydrogen sulfide and ammonium through a thick layer of permafrost. Large amounts of biomass that consist of filamentous microorganisms containing sulfur granules, as analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, were found in(More)
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