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This experiment investigated the frames of reference used in memory to represent the spatial structure of a large-scale outdoor environment. Participants learned the locations of eight objects in an unfamiliar city park by walking through the park on one of two prescribed paths that encircled a large rectangular building. The aligned path was oriented with(More)
Four experiments investigated the memory distortions for the location of a dot in relation to two horizontally aligned landmarks. In Experiment 1, participants reproduced from memory a dot location with respect to the two landmarks. Their performance showed a systematic pattern of distortion that was consistent across individual participants. The three(More)
We tested the influence of two horizontally aligned visual landmarks on pointing movements to memorized targets, to investigate whether the visuomotor system can make use of an egocentric representation unaffected by visual context. The endpoints of pointing movements were systematically distorted toward the nearest visual landmark, indicating that spatial(More)
Human navigation in well-known environments is guided by stored memory representations of spatial information. In three experiments (N = 43) we investigated the role of different spatial reference systems when accessing information about familiar objects at different locations in the city in which the participants lived. Our results indicate that two(More)
Navigation has always been an interdisciplinary topic of research, because mobile agents of different types are inevitably faced with similar navi-gational problems. Therefore, human navigation can readily be compared to navigation in other biological organisms or in artificial mobile agents like autonomous robots. One such navigational strategy,(More)
The paper gives a brief overview of the interdisciplinary DFG priority program on spatial cognition and presents one specific theme which was the topic of a recent workshop in Göttingen in some more detail. A taxonomy of landmark, route, and survey knowledge for navigation tasks proposed at the workshop is presented. Different ways of acquiring route(More)
Visual landmarks introduce systematic distortions into spatial short-term memory for single target positions, the exact form of the distortion depending on the spatial layout of the landmarks. In two experiments, we investigated how the combined effect of two landmarks can be predicted from the effects of individual landmarks. Participants used a mouse(More)
Research on human spatial memory and navigational ability has recently shown the strong influence of reference systems in spatial memory on the ways spatial information is accessed in navigation and other spatially oriented tasks. One of the main findings can be characterized as a large cognitive cost, both in terms of speed and accuracy that occurs(More)