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BACKGROUND The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) is believed to mediate glucoregulatory and cardiovascular effects of the incretin hormone GLP-1(7-36) (GLP-1), which is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) to GLP-1(9-36), a truncated metabolite generally thought to be inactive. Novel drugs for the treatment of diabetes include(More)
Heart rate is controlled by the opposing activities of sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs to pacemaker myocytes in the sinoatrial node (SAN). Parasympathetic activity on nodal myocytes is mediated by acetylcholine-dependent stimulation of M(2) muscarinic receptors and activation of Galpha(i/o) signaling. Although regulators of G protein signaling (RGS)(More)
Growing evidence suggests that mechanisms which regulate the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus in vascular smooth muscle cells form the backbone of pressure-induced myogenic vasoconstriction. The modulation of Ca2+ sensitivity is suited to partially uncouple intracellular Ca2+ from constriction, thereby allowing the maintenance of tone with(More)
Connexins have been hypothesized to play an important role in intercellular communication within the vascular wall and may provide a mechanistic explanation for conduction of vasomotor responses. To test this hypothesis, we studied the transmission of vasomotor responses in the intact skeletal muscle microcirculation of connexin40-deficient mice(More)
 We studied whether a flow-independent increase of luminal wall shear stress (WSS) could dilate hamster arterioles in vivo and which endothelial mediators are potentially involved. To this end the plasma viscosity was elevated by exchanging blood for dextran-erythrocyte solution thereby augmenting WSS. Diameters of small and large arterioles as well as red(More)
BACKGROUND NO-induced dilations in resistance arteries (RAs) are not associated with decreases in vascular smooth muscle cell Ca2+. We tested whether a cGMP-dependent activation of the smooth muscle myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) resulting in a Ca2+ desensitization of the contractile apparatus was the underlying mechanism and whether it could be(More)
BACKGROUND RhoA and Rho kinase are important modulators of microvascular tone. METHODS AND RESULTS We tested whether sphingosine kinase (Sphk1) that generates the endogenous sphingolipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is part of a signaling cascade to activate the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. Using a new transfection model, we report that resting tone(More)
RATIONALE Diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction have been reported in humans during mechanical ventilation, but the prevalence, causes, and functional impact of changes in diaphragm thickness during routine mechanical ventilation for critically ill patients are unknown. OBJECTIVES To describe the evolution of diaphragm thickness over time during mechanical(More)
Millions of platelets are produced each hour by bone marrow (BM) megakaryocytes (MKs). MKs extend transendothelial proplatelet (PP) extensions into BM sinusoids and shed new platelets into the blood. The mechanisms that control platelet generation remain incompletely understood. Using conditional mutants and intravital multiphoton microscopy, we show here(More)
Long-term culture of resistance vessels allows introduction of molecular biology techniques for use in microvascular research. The aim of the present study was to establish a culture protocol that preserved vascular integrity and function in microvessels for 48 h in culture. Skeletal muscle resistance arteries were excised from the hamster gracilis muscle.(More)