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Heart rate is controlled by the opposing activities of sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs to pacemaker myocytes in the sinoatrial node (SAN). Parasympathetic activity on nodal myocytes is mediated by acetylcholine-dependent stimulation of M(2) muscarinic receptors and activation of Galpha(i/o) signaling. Although regulators of G protein signaling (RGS)(More)
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which mediates pleiotropic actions within the vascular system, is a prominent regulator of microvascular tone. By virtue of its S1P-degrading function, we hypothesized that S1P-phosphohydrolase 1 (SPP1) is an important regulator of tone in resistance arteries. Hamster gracilis muscle resistance arteries express mRNA encoding(More)
The S1P(2) receptor is a member of a family of G protein-coupled receptors that bind the extracellular sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate with high affinity. The receptor is widely expressed and linked to multiple G protein signaling pathways, but its physiological function has remained elusive. Here we have demonstrated that S1P(2) receptor(More)
BACKGROUND NO-induced dilations in resistance arteries (RAs) are not associated with decreases in vascular smooth muscle cell Ca2+. We tested whether a cGMP-dependent activation of the smooth muscle myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) resulting in a Ca2+ desensitization of the contractile apparatus was the underlying mechanism and whether it could be(More)
Connexins have been hypothesized to play an important role in intercellular communication within the vascular wall and may provide a mechanistic explanation for conduction of vasomotor responses. To test this hypothesis, we studied the transmission of vasomotor responses in the intact skeletal muscle microcirculation of connexin40-deficient mice(More)
BACKGROUND RhoA and Rho kinase are important modulators of microvascular tone. METHODS AND RESULTS We tested whether sphingosine kinase (Sphk1) that generates the endogenous sphingolipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is part of a signaling cascade to activate the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. Using a new transfection model, we report that resting tone(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a complex stroke subtype characterized by an initial brain injury, followed by delayed cerebrovascular constriction and ischemia. Current therapeutic strategies nonselectively curtail exacerbated cerebrovascular constriction, which necessarily disrupts the essential and protective process of cerebral(More)
Gap-junctional communication coordinates the behavior of individual cells in arterioles. Gap junctions are formed by connexins 40 (Cx40), Cx43, Cx37, and Cx45 in the vasculature. Previously, we have shown that lack of Cx40 impairs conduction of dilatory signals along arterioles. Herein, we examined whether hypertension is present in conscious animals and(More)
Millions of platelets are produced each hour by bone marrow (BM) megakaryocytes (MKs). MKs extend transendothelial proplatelet (PP) extensions into BM sinusoids and shed new platelets into the blood. The mechanisms that control platelet generation remain incompletely understood. Using conditional mutants and intravital multiphoton microscopy, we show here(More)
Using a novel vessel culture technique in combination with antisense oligonucleotide transfection, we tested whether the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) is a cytochrome P450 (CYP)-related compound. Isolated resistance arteries from hamster gracilis muscle (n=19) were perfused and exposed to antisense (As), sense (S), or scrambled (Scr)(More)