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SMART (Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool) is a web tool (http://smart.embl.de/) for the identification and annotation of protein domains, and provides a platform for the comparative study of complex domain architectures in genes and proteins. The January 2004 release of SMART contains 685 protein domains. New developments in SMART are centred on the(More)
Quantifying the distribution of fitness effects among newly arising mutations in the human genome is key to resolving important debates in medical and evolutionary genetics. Here, we present a method for inferring this distribution using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data from a population with non-stationary demographic history (such as that of(More)
Functional links between proteins can often be inferred from genomic associations between the genes that encode them: groups of genes that are required for the same function tend to show similar species coverage, are often located in close proximity on the genome (in prokaryotes), and tend to be involved in gene-fusion events. The database STRING is a(More)
Quantifying the number of deleterious mutations per diploid human genome is of crucial concern to both evolutionary and medical geneticists. Here we combine genome-wide polymorphism data from PCR-based exon resequencing, comparative genomic data across mammalian species, and protein structure predictions to estimate the number of functionally consequential(More)
Alu retrotransposons evolved from 7SL RNA approximately 65 million years ago and underwent several rounds of massive expansion in primate genomes. Consequently, the human genome currently harbors 1.1 million Alu copies. Some of these copies remain actively mobile and continue to produce both genetic variation and diseases by "jumping" to new genomic(More)
The CCR4-NOT complex plays a crucial role in post-transcriptional mRNA regulation in eukaryotes. This complex catalyzes the removal of mRNA poly(A) tails, thereby repressing translation and committing an mRNA to degradation. The conserved core of the complex is assembled by the interaction of at least two modules: the NOT module, which minimally consists of(More)
Body weight is a quantitative trait with significant heritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors to this phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of 58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96-Mb survey included 21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, as well as 37 genes(More)
Comparison of human and mouse genomes has revealed that many non-coding regions have levels of sequence conservation similar to protein-coding genes. These regions have attracted a lot of attention as potentially functional genomic sequences. However, little is known about the effect mutations in these conserved non-coding regions have on fitness and how(More)
The CCR4-NOT complex plays a crucial role in post-transcriptional mRNA regulation in eukaryotic cells. It catalyzes the removal of mRNA poly(A) tails, thereby repressing translation and committing mRNAs to decay. The conserved core of the complex consists of a catalytic module comprising two deadenylases (CAF1/POP2 and CCR4a/b) and the NOT module, which(More)
Two allelic variants of the delta opioid receptor gene, distinguished by a single base exchange T to C in codon 307 of the translated region, were detected in humans. The amino acid sequence was thereby not changed. The resulting C and T alleles combined to give the three genotypes CC, CT and TT. Allele C was more frequent in a sample of 103 German(More)