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To identify unknown proteins from plant peroxisomes, the Arabidopsis genome was screened for proteins with putative major or minor peroxisome targeting signals type 1 or 2 (PTS1 or PTS2), as defined previously (Reumann S [2004] Plant Physiol 135: 783-800). About 220 and 60 proteins were identified that carry a putative PTS1 or PTS2, respectively. To further(More)
Higher cyclorrhaphan flies including Drosophila develop a single extraembryonic epithelium (amnioserosa), which closes the germband dorsally. In most other insects two extraembryonic epithelia, serosa and amnion, line the inner eggshell and the ventral germband, respectively. How the two extraembryonic epithelia evolved into one is unclear. Recent studies(More)
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is an essential factor in dorsoventral patterning of animal embryos but how BMP signaling evolved with fundamental changes in dorsoventral tissue differentiation is unclear. Flies experienced an evolutionary reduction of extra-embryonic tissue types from two (amniotic and serosal tissue) to one (amnionserosal(More)
The segmentation gene network in insects can produce equivalent phenotypic outputs despite differences in upstream regulatory inputs between species. We investigate the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon through a systems-level analysis of the gap gene network in the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita (Phoridae). It combines quantification of gene expression at(More)
The hemispheric, bi-layered optic cup forms from an oval optic vesicle during early vertebrate eye development through major morphological transformations. The overall basal surface, facing the developing lens, is increasing, while, at the same time, the space basally occupied by individual cells is decreasing. This cannot be explained by the classical view(More)
The homeobox gene caudal (cad) regulates posterior development in Drosophila. In early embryos, the cad protein (CAD) is expressed in a posterior-to-anterior concentration gradient, which contributes polarity to the developing embryo. The CAD gradient is complementary to and dependent on the anterior pattern organizer Bicoid (BCD), which represses the(More)