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Megacities are immense sources of air pollutants, with large impacts on air quality and climate. However, emission inventories in many of them still are highly uncertain, particularly in developing countries. Satellite observations allow top-down estimates of emissions to be made for nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO(2)), but require poorly quantified a(More)
A solution is proposed of the hitherto unsolved problem as to how neural feedforward through inverse modelling and negative feedback realised by a mechanical spring can be combined to achieve a highly effective control of limb movement. The revised spring approach that we suggest does not require forward modelling and produces simulated data which are as(More)
Intercontinental transport (ICT) of trace substances normally occurs on timescales ranging from a few days to several weeks. In this paper an extraordinary episode in November 2001 is presented, where pollution transport across the North Atlantic took only about one day. The transport mechanism, termed here an intercontinental pollution express highway(More)
The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME, since 1995) allows the retrieval of global total column densities of atmospheric trace gases, including NO 2. Tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) are derived by estimating the stratospheric fraction from measurements over the remote ocean. Mean maps of tropospheric NO 2 VCDs 5 derived from GOME clearly(More)
  • R Damoah, N Spichtinger, +6 authors A Stohl
  • 2004
In May 2003, severe forest fires in southeast Rus-sia resulted in smoke plumes extending widely across the Northern Hemisphere. This study combines satellite data from a variety of platforms (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Global(More)
Nitrogen oxides (NO x =NO+NO 2) play an important role in tropospheric chemistry, in particular in catalytic ozone production. Lightning provides a natural source of nitrogen oxides, dominating the production in the tropical upper troposphere, with strong impact on tropospheric ozone and the atmosphere's oxidizing capacity. Recent estimates of lightning(More)
The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) allows the retrieval of tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO 2 on a global scale. Regions with enhanced industrial activity can clearly be detected, but the standard spatial resolution of the GOME ground pixels (320×40 km 2) is insufficient to resolve regional trace gas distributions or individual(More)
The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) allows to retrieve tropospheric vertical column densities (TVCDs) of NO 2. Mean maps of the global distribution of NO 2 TVCDs reveal a clear fingerprint of anthropo-genic sources due to fossil fuel combustion. However, GOME data suffer from the rather large footprint size of 320 km east-west, leading to a(More)
In this study, we analyse the sensitivity of nadir viewing satellite observations in the visible range to freshly produced lightning NO x. This is a particular challenge due to the complex and highly variable conditions of meteorology , (photo-) chemistry, and radiative transfer in and around cumulonimbus clouds. For the first time, such a study is(More)