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The nucleus tegmenti pedunculopontine (PPTg) is a new target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD), in particular for ameliorating postural abnormalities and gait disturbances. The objective of the study is to describe the pre-operative planning, the surgical procedures and results of the DBS of PPTg in humans. Thirteen patients were(More)
BACKGROUND The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a novel target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in movement disorders. OBJECTIVE To clarify the relationships between the individual anatomic variations of the brainstem, the site in which the PPTg DBS is applied, and the clinical outcome in a relatively large number of patients affected by(More)
Objective. The aim of the present study was to describe the surgical and clinical outcomes of the implantation and stimulation of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in humans. Materials and Methods. Fourteen patients affected by movement disorders (12 Parkinson's disease and 2 progressive supranuclear palsy) underwent surgery for bilateral or(More)
The application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) has required profound modifications of classic neurosurgical techniques and of the criteria for evaluation of clinical results. This review analyzes a novel method of targeting the PPTg, based on angio-computerized tomography (angio-CT) scans and the(More)
The region of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) has been proposed as a novel target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat levodopa resistant symptoms in motor disorders. Recently, the anatomical organization of the brainstem has been revised and four new distinct structures have been represented in the ventrolateral pontine tegmentum area in(More)
The use of robotics in neurosurgery and, particularly, in stereotactic neurosurgery, is becoming more and more adopted because of the great advantages that it offers. Robotic manipulators easily allow to achieve great precision, reliability, and rapidity in the positioning of surgical instruments or devices in the brain. The aim of this work was to(More)
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