Stefano Ruffini

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This article addresses the synchronization needs for mobile backhaul networks when deploying LTE small cells. Existing synchronization solutions for both FDD and TDD macro networks are discussed as well as the applicability of those solutions to small cells deployed in LTE TDD and LTE FDD networks. The benefits of using radio coordination features in a(More)
This article discusses the evolving transport architecture, covering some of the synchronization distribution problems to many endpoints where mobile backhaul and TDM emulation occur. It shows how synchronous Ethernet fits into both the Ethernet and synchronization architectures, and discusses how this helped development in standardization bodies.(More)
This article describes the work performed by ITU-T SG15Q13 for defining the first telecom profile based on the use of IEEE Std 1588-2008. The first profile is specifically developed for the distribution of frequency using unicast IPv4 transmission, and required adaptation of the IEEE1588 protocol to make it suitable for the telecom environment. The(More)
This article summarizes the work done by ITU-T Q13/15 over the last six years to standardize the transport of timing over packet networks. It provides a summary of the published documents in this area from ITU-T while providing some of the background that went into each document including the specification of synchronous Ethernet and IEEE 1588 telecom(More)
This article describes the timing aspects of optical transport networks as defined by ITU-T SG15 Q13. It first presents the initial decisions that led to the specification of Recommendation G.8251 in 2001, which defined the OTN network limits and the clocks for OTN equipment. This article also presents work done since 2001 to support the evolution of(More)
Network synchronization is a generic concept that depicts a way of distributing common time and frequency references to all the nodes of a network, to align their respective time and frequency scales (Box B). The role of network synchronization, especially in the context of frequency accuracy, has grown in importance since the late 1970s, when digital(More)
Network synchronization is expected to be one of the key aspects in 5G. This article presents an application of the SDN (Software Defined Networking) and NFV (Network Function Virtualization) principles to the area of the network synchronization, enabling to offer synchronization as a service. The approach is based on defining a harmonization layer that(More)