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During 1999, northern Italy has been affected by an epidemic of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) caused by a virus of the H7N1 subtype. Due to the characteristics of the poultry industry in the area and to the absence of specific legislative tools to eradicate infection, the virus continued to circulate for several months until a highly pathogenic(More)
From the end of March to the beginning of December 1999, an epidemic of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) affected the industrial poultry population of northern Italy. The virus responsible for the epidemic was subtyped as H7N1 with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) of 0.0, and a deduced amino acid sequence of the region coding for the(More)
Between the month of October 1997 and January 1998, eight outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza were diagnosed in the Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia regions in north-eastern Italy. For each of the eight outbreaks, influenza A virus of subtype H5N2 was isolated and the inoculation of susceptible chickens confirmed these viruses to be extremely(More)
SUMMARY Two outbreaks of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infection in dairy cattle herds were managed through the application of enhanced biosecurity measures, whole-herd antibiotic treatment and vaccination. Micro-agglutination test antibody titres were determined in paired serum samples at 3 weeks (T1: n = 125, 97% seropositivity, median 800,(More)
From 1997 to 2001, Italy has been affected by two epidemics of high-pathogenicity avian influenza. The first epidemic was caused by a virus of the H5N2 subtype and was limited to eight premises in backyard and semi-intensive flocks. The prompt identification of the disease was followed by the implementation of European Union (EU) directive 92/40/EEC and(More)
Since 1999, Italy has been challenged by several epidemics of Notifiable Avian Influenza (NAI) of the H5 and H7 subtypes, occurring in the densely populated poultry areas of northern part of the country. Vaccination with a conventional vaccine containing a seed strain with a different neuraminidase subtype to the field virus was used to complement(More)
BACKGROUND The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the 'gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy has been evaluated in comparison with HI test results,(More)
The reproductive performance of 28 sows seropositive to Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae was compared with that of 87 Leptospira sp. seronegative dams belonging to the same herd. Sows were sampled during 1988 to 1993. During this period the herd was not submitted to any kind of intervention (antibiotic therapy, immunoprophylaxis or rodent(More)