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In the intact brain neurons are constantly exposed to intense synaptic activity. This heavy barrage of excitatory and inhibitory inputs was recreated in vitro by injecting a noisy current, generated as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, into the soma of rat neocortical pyramidal cells. The response to such in vivo-like currents was studied systematically by(More)
We present a model of spike-driven synaptic plasticity inspired by experimental observations and motivated by the desire to build an electronic hardware device that can learn to classify complex stimuli in a semisupervised fashion. During training, patterns of activity are sequentially imposed on the input neurons, and an additional instructor signal drives(More)
Storing memories of ongoing, everyday experiences requires a high degree of plasticity, but retaining these memories demands protection against changes induced by further activity and experience. Models in which memories are stored through switch-like transitions in synaptic efficacy are good at storing but bad at retaining memories if these transitions are(More)
We discuss the long term maintenance of acquired memory in synaptic connections of a perpetually learning electronic device. This is affected by ascribing each synapse a finite number of stable states in which it can maintain for indefinitely long periods. Learning uncorrelated stimuli is expressed as a stochastic process produced by the neural activities(More)
We study unsupervised Hebbian learning in a recurrent network in which synapses have a finite number of stable states. Stimuli received by the network are drawn at random at each presentation from a set of classes. Each class is defined as a cluster in stimulus space, centred on the class prototype. The presentation protocol is chosen to mimic the protocols(More)
We analyze in detail the statistical properties of the spike emission process of a canonical integrate-and-fire neuron, with a linear integrator and a lower bound for the depolarization, as often used in VLSI implementations (Mead, 1989). The spike statistics of such neurons appear to be qualitatively similar to conventional (exponential) integrate-and-fire(More)
Neural dynamic processes correlated over several time scales are found in vivo, in stimulus-evoked as well as spontaneous activity, and are thought to affect the way sensory stimulation is processed. Despite their potential computational consequences, a systematic description of the presence of multiple time scales in single cortical neurons is lacking. In(More)
Rate models are often used to study the behavior of large networks of spiking neurons. Here we propose a procedure to derive rate models that take into account the fluctuations of the input current and firing-rate adaptation, two ubiquitous features in the central nervous system that have been previously overlooked in constructing rate models. The procedure(More)
When monkeys perform a delayed match-to-sample task, some neurons in the anterior inferotemporal cortex show sustained activity following the presentation of specific visual stimuli, typically only those that are shown repeatedly. When sample stimuli are shown in a fixed temporal order, the few images that evoke delay activity in a given neuron are often(More)
Neural activity of behaving animals, especially in the prefrontal cortex, is highly heterogeneous, with selective responses to diverse aspects of the executed task. We propose a general model of recurrent neural networks that perform complex rule-based tasks, and we show that the diversity of neuronal responses plays a fundamental role when the behavioral(More)