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IMPORTANCE TO THE FIELD: Virtual screening is a computer-based technique for identifying promising compounds to bind to a target molecule of known structure. Given the rapidly increasing number of protein and nucleic acid structures, virtual screening continues to grow as an effective method for the discovery of new inhibitors and drug molecules. AREAS(More)
Zinc is present in a wide variety of proteins and is important in the metabolism of most organisms. Zinc metalloenzymes are therapeutically relevant targets in diseases such as cancer, heart disease, bacterial infection, and Alzheimer's disease. In most cases a drug molecule targeting such enzymes establishes an interaction that coordinates with the zinc(More)
Small molecules are powerful tools for investigating protein function and can serve as leads for new therapeutics. Most human proteins, however, lack small-molecule ligands, and entire protein classes are considered 'undruggable'. Fragment-based ligand discovery can identify small-molecule probes for proteins that have proven difficult to target using(More)
Computational docking can be used to predict bound conformations and free energies of binding for small-molecule ligands to macromolecular targets. Docking is widely used for the study of biomolecular interactions and mechanisms, and it is applied to structure-based drug design. The methods are fast enough to allow virtual screening of ligand libraries(More)
As knowledge of individual biological processes grows, it becomes increasingly useful to frame new findings within their larger biological contexts in order to generate new systems-scale hypotheses. This report highlights two major iterations of a whole virus model of HIV-1, generated with the cellPACK software. cellPACK integrates structural and systems(More)
We describe two methods of automated covalent docking using Autodock4: the two-point attractor method and the flexible side chain method. Both methods were applied to a training set of 20 diverse protein-ligand covalent complexes, evaluating their reliability in predicting the crystallographic pose of the ligands. The flexible side chain method performed(More)
Tubulin targeting agents constitute an important class of anticancer drugs. By acting either as microtubule stabilizers or destabilizers, they disrupt microtubule dynamics, thus inducing mitotic arrest and, ultimately, cell death by apoptosis. Three different binding sites, whose exact location on tubulin has been experimentally detected, have been(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase is one of three virally encoded enzymes essential for replication and, therefore, a rational choice as a drug target for the treatment of HIV-1-infected individuals. In 2007, raltegravir became the first integrase inhibitor approved for use in the treatment of HIV-infected patients, more than a decade(More)
A new generation of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (coxibs) was developed to circumvent the major side effects of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 inhibitors (stomach ulceration and nephrotoxicity). As a consequence, coxibs are extremely valuable in treating acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, the use of coxibs, such as(More)