Stefano Caroldi

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Methamidophos causes acute cholinergic toxicity in several species, including man, and organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy which has been reported in man but not in the hen. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and neuropathy target esterase (NTE) are thought to be the molecular targets of acute and delayed toxicity, respectively. The rate constants of(More)
Certain sulfonates, like phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), carbamates, and phosphinates, when given prior to neuropathic doses of organophosphates such as diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP), protect hens from organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP). Protection was related to inhibition of the putative target of OPIDP, which is called(More)
Chlorpyrifos [0,0-diethyl 0-(3,5,6-trichloro-pyridyl) phosphorothioate] caused delayed polyneuropathy in man. Contrary to previous studies, we report here that it also causes delayed polyneuropathy in the hen, the animal model for this toxicity. The minimal neuropathic dose was 60–90 mg/kg p.o., corresponding to 4–6 times the estimated LD50. Consequently,(More)
Assay of free and acid labile carbon disulphide (free and total CS2 respectively) in human blood was performed by gas chromatography/spectrometry. The method used a large dynamic head space volume and a "cryogenic trap". Blood CS2 concentration was measured in 42 subjects not occupationally exposed to CS2 (group A) and in 11 alcoholic subjects (group B)(More)
Systemic injection of diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP; 1 mg/kg, sc) causes delayed neuropathy in hens. This effect is associated with a high level of organophosphorylation of neuropathy target esterase (NTE) followed by an intramolecular rearrangement called "aging." Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) also attacks the active center of NTE but(More)
1. In humans CaNa2EDTA increases urinary excretion of lead as well as that of essential metals such as zinc, ferrum and manganese but not that of copper. 2. We studied the effect of CaNa2EDTA injection on serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, a copper-dependent enzyme, in three male lead welders hospitalized for suspected lead poisoning. 3. Injection of(More)
Some organophosphorous esters cause a polyneuropathy which becomes clinically evident 2 weeks after a single dose. The pathogenesis involves modifications of a target protein, neuropathy target esterase, in the axons and a selective inhibition of retrograde axonal transport. It was suggested that copper metabolism might also be involved because of increased(More)
Levels of acetylcholinesterase and neurotoxic esterase were measured in brain autopsy material. In tissue from a fatal human poisoning and from hens given 4–8 × unprotected LD50 AChE was highly inhibited and neurotoxic esterase uninhibited. The findings correlate with the inhibitory power of omethoate against these enzymes in vitro. It is concluded that(More)
Measurement of neuropathy target esterase activity (NTE) in blood lymphocytes has been suggested as a possible biomonitor for organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy. Human lymphocyte NTE was characterized in vitro according to the sensitivity to several organophosphate inhibitors, which was found similar to that of the nervous system enzyme. Methods(More)