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Previous studies indicated that the Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is a progression factor for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Specifically, extracellular Tat cooperates with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in promoting KS and endothelial cell growth and locomotion and in inducing KS-like lesions in vivo. Here we show that Tat and(More)
Accurate laboratory tests for the diagnosis of active human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection are becoming essential to study the pathogenesis of HHV-8-associated tumors and for the clinical management of HHV-8-infected individuals. We have developed a highly sensitive, calibrated quantitative real-time PCR assay for the measurement of cell-free HHV-8 DNA in(More)
Laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is fundamental for detecting and monitoring infection. Many diagnostic tools are available that are based on both detection of HIV-specific antibodies and virus antigen, or nucleic acid. As technology evolves, HIV testing assays are being improved providing better sensitivity and(More)
Vaccination with a biologically active Tat protein or tat DNA contained infection with the highly pathogenic SHIV89.6P virus, preventing CD4 T-cell decline and disease onset. Here we show that protection was prolonged, since neither CD4 T-cell decline nor active virus replication was observed in all vaccinated animals that controlled virus replication up to(More)
Use of Env in HIV vaccine development has been disappointing. Here we show that, in the presence of a biologically active Tat subunit vaccine, a trimeric Env protein prevents in monkeys virus spread from the portal of entry to regional lymph nodes. This appears to be due to specific interactions between Tat and Env spikes that form a novel virus entry(More)
Studies on HIV virology and pathogenesis address the complex mechanisms that result in the HIV infection of the cell and destruction of the immune system. These studies are focused on both the structure and the replication characteristics of HIV and on the interaction of the virus with the host. Continuous updating of knowledge on structure, variability and(More)
In Europe, the incidence of new diagnoses of HIV infection in 2008 was 86.7 cases per one million population, and most cases were attributable to sexual transmission. In Italy, in 2007, the incidence was 60.0 cases per one million population (in the areas in which surveillance exists), and 73.7% of the cases were attributable to sexual transmission. At(More)
HIV/AIDS surveillance data indicate that, in 2008, approximately one-fourth of all HIV infections in adults remain undiagnosed in Italy and that close to 60% of AIDS diagnosed individuals discovered their seropositivity at the diagnosis of AIDS. Late diagnosis of HIV infection is associated with increased mortality and morbidity and increased cost to(More)
Murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) M38 and L31 define two epitopes of a surface protein of activated lymphocytes and monocytes. It has been shown that M38 also defines a crossreactive epitope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 (Beretta et al., 1987. Eur. J. Immunol. 17: 1793). The mAb inhibits syncytia formation driven by HIV-1-infected(More)
Among candidate antigens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prophylactic vaccines, the regulatory protein Tat is a critical early target, but has a potential for immune suppression. Adenovirus (Ad) recombinants encoding wild-type HIV Tat (Tat-wt) and a transdominant negative mutant HIV Tat (Tat22) were constructed and administered to mice separately or(More)