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There is some evidence that the pathophysiology of schizophrenia is related to activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS), as indicated by increased serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), IL-1R antagonist (IL-1RA) and IL-2R and lower serum concentrations of CC16, an endogenous anti-inflammatory protein with(More)
BACKGROUND Depression has been associated with low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels, while antidepressant drugs appear to mend this alteration. The purpose of this study was to assess BDNF serum levels in drug resistant depressed patients before and after repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) antidepressant treatment. (More)
OBJECTIVE Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is proposed for the treatment of drug-resistant depression. Studies performed in accordance with evidence-based medicine (EBM) are scarce, particularly in seeking optimal treatment and evaluation parameters. We aimed to test various types of rTMS in a large sample of depressed patients following(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a painless and safe brain stimulation technique that has been found to be effective in treating depression symptoms. The potential usefulness of rTMS, in particular to treat drug resistant patients, might be increased by identifying genetic predictors of efficacy. According to this rationale, we(More)
BACKGROUND Anxiety disorders exhibit remarkably high rates of comorbidity with major depressive disorder (MDD). Mood and anxiety disorders are considered stress-related diseases. Genetic variations in the co-chaperone FK506-binding protein 51, FKBP5, which modulates the function of glucocorticoid receptors, have been associated with an increased risk for(More)
Dysregulation of the inflammatory response system has been linked to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Abnormal levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors have been found in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients, suggesting the presence of immune activation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) influences(More)
Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness characterised by disturbance of thought, hallucination and delusions.(1) Several studies have suggested that dysfunctions in the glutamatergic transmission are linked to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and in particular an excessive activation of glutamate receptors seems to be related to the disruption of(More)
There is now evidence that schizophrenia may be accompanied by an activation of the monocytic and T-helper-2 (Th-2) arms of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and by various alterations in the Th-1 arm of CMI. There is also evidence that repeated administration of typical and atypical antipsychotics may result in negative immunomodulatory effects. This study was(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent modulators of protein expression that play key roles in brain pathways regulating neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. These small RNAs may be critical for the pathophysiology of mental disorders and may influence the effectiveness of psychotropic drugs. To investigate the possible involvement of miRNAs in the mechanism of(More)
In this study, we investigated the possible association between clinical or pharmacological variables and suicidal behavior in a sample of chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder patients. One hundred and three patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were studied. The sample was subdivided in two(More)